Publications -- Sarah Ross

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This collection is limited to articles published under the terms of a creative commons license or other open access publishing agreement since 2016. It is not intended as a complete list of the author's works.


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    Impact of Age on Cognitive Testing Practice Effects and Cardiorespiratory Responses
    (Sage Publications, 2024-02-27) Reddy, Priyanka M.; Abdali, Kulsum; Ross, Sarah E.; Davis, Sandra; Mallet, Robert T.; Shi, Xiangrong
    Objective: This study tested the hypothesis that healthy aging attenuates cognitive practice effects and, consequently, limits the familiarity-associated reductions in heart rate (HR) and breathing frequency (BF) responses during retesting. Methods: Twenty-one cognitively normal older and younger adults (65 +/- 2 vs. 26 +/- 1 years old) participated in the study. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Digit-Span-Test (DST), Trail Making Test (TMT-B), and California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT-II) were administered twice at 3-week intervals, while HR and BF were monitored by electrocardiography and plethysmography, respectively. Results: Cognitive performances were not affected by the age factor, and the retest factor only affected CVLT-II. HR and BF increased only in the younger adults (p < .01) during cognitive tests; retesting attenuated these responses (retest factor p < .01). Long-delay free-recall in CVLT-II was unchanged in cognitively normal older versus younger adults. Healthy aging did not diminish short-term memory assessed by DST and CVLT-II short-delay or long-delay free-recalls. Conclusions: Only CVLT-II, but not MMSE, DST or TMT-B, demonstrated cognitive retesting practice effects in the younger and older adults. Cognitive testing at 3-week intervals in cognitively normal older and younger subjects revealed divergent cardiorespiratory responses to MMSE, DST, and TMT-B cognitive testing, particularly HR, which increased only in younger adults and to a lesser extent during retesting despite the absence of practice effects.