Gender Differences in Chronic Low Back Pain Perception and Chosen Treatment Modalities
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Background: Differences in perceptions and reported levels of pain intensity between men and women are poorly understood. Current evidence indicates an increased prevalence of chronic pain syndromes in women. However, relationships among gender, reported pain and related clinical outcomes, and pain treatment modalities have not been adequately studied. Purpose: The purpose of this research was to examine differences between men and women in pain intensity and its clinical impact, including differences in pain treatment modalities according to gender. Hypotheses: Women are more likely to report higher levels of pain intensity than men, and thereby also experience greater back-related disability and poorer quality of life. Women are more likely to use non-pharmacological approaches to manage pain in addition to, or in place of, opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs). Methods: 452 patients aged 21 to 79 years with chronic low back pain were selected from the Pain Registry for Epidemiological, Clinical, and Interventional Studies and Innovation (PRECISION Pain Research Registry). Patient data at registry enrollment included sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, including pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments used. Clinical status measures included a numerical rating scale for pain intensity (NRS), the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), and quality of life deficits on the SPADE cluster (sleep disturbance, pain interference with activities, anxiety, depression, and low energy/fatigue). Contingency table methods and t-tests were used for analysis. Results: No statistically significant differences between genders with respect to NRS, RMDQ, and SPADE scores (p= 0.75, 0.27, and 0.23, respectively). A statistically significant relationship was observed between females and NSAID usage (p=0.03). However, no significant relationships were observed between gender and use of opioids or other non-pharmacological pain treatment modalities. Conclusions: Women were not more likely to report higher levels of pain, nor to report higher levels of pain-related disability or quality of life deficits. Women were more likely than men to use NSAIDs for their low back pain, but were not more likely to use opioid therapy or other non-pharmacological pain treatment modalities. Further research is needed to determine what other factors might play into women using NSAIDs more frequently.