A Retrospective Chart Review of COVID-19 Infection and Pregnancy Outcomes

Date

2022

Authors

Seale, Aimee
O'Neal, Morgan
Winn, Andi

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Purpose: Investigating possible effects, outcomes, and complications of the novel COVID-19 virus and related treatments during pregnancy is imperative to maintain proper care for women throughout pregnancy and postpartum. The COVID-19 pandemic has posed new challenges for physicians caring for patients during and after pregnancy. The aim of this study performed at UNTHSC Obstetrics and Gynecology clinic was to evaluate the effects of COVID-19 disease on pregnancy outcomes. Methods: This retrospective chart review included 43 patients who tested positive for COVID-19 during pregnancy. All patients delivered between November 2020 to August 2021. Patient demographics and delivery outcomes were collected from the electronic medical record. Demographic data included gestational age at diagnosis, severity of disease, incidence of outcomes such as preterm birth (PTB), preeclampsia (PEC), birth weight, method of delivery, and gestational diabetes (GDM). Following data collection, Texas statistics were gathered to compare incidence of these outcomes following COVID-19 diagnosis to the incidence in the general Texas population. Results: Data analysis found incidence of the most significant outcomes following data collection. Notably all patients presented with mild disease. When compared to Texas statistics, the incidence of low-risk cesarean section (28.40% Texas, 37.21% UNTHSC), gestational hypertension (8.90% Texas, 13.95% UNTHSC), and GDM (6.40% Texas, 6.98% UNTHSC) were comparable. Results for PEC (5% US, 4.65% UNTHSC) were compared to United States average rather to Texas average due to inconsistency in state specific data, and the outcomes remained comparable. Outcome for low birth weight (8.40% Texas, 2.33% UNTHSC) and PTB (10.80% Texas, 4.89% UNTHSC) were the outlier data points as these did not match closely with Texas statistics. Conclusion: This study was limited by small sample size. Further research is still warranted to evaluate the spectrum of effects of COVID-19 infection on pregnancy outcomes. Results from this study revealed incidence of the most common and severe complications associated with COVID-19 infection in pregnancy were not significantly increased from the general population when compared to published state data.

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