ADHD Management in Adolescents and its Impact to Lower Incidence of Risky Sexual Behavior

dc.creatorGillespie, Ameliaen_US
dc.creatorBrosnan, Amandaen_US
dc.creatorGriner, Staceyen_US
dc.description.abstractBackground: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurological condition that is recognized by an ongoing pattern of inattention with or without hyperactivity and impulsivity that interferes with functioning or development. In 2020, it was reported that ADHD affects 9.6% of children ages 6-11 and 13.6% of adolescents ages 12-17. Therapies that include medications and/or interventions can aid in reducing symptoms and improving functioning. ADHD can be associated with sexual health outcomes such as higher rates of sexually transmitted infections and elevated rates of risky sexual behavior, like condomless sex. Adolescents with ADHD have an earlier age of intercourse, more lifetime sexual partners, higher rates of pregnancy, and higher rates of lifetime STIs. However, few studies have investigated sexual health promotion for those diagnosed with ADHD. Purpose: The purpose of the present study is to explore current literature examining the relationship between ADHD and risky sexual behavior among adolescents. Methods: A literature review process was conducted using PubMed and Google Scholar. The reference list of the relevant articles was screened for titles and abstracts containing the keywords: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, ADHD, risky sexual behaviors, STI, Sexually Transmitted Infections, Syphilis, Chlamydia, human papillomavirus, herpes, sexually transmitted diseases. The retrospective search was limited to articles in English, from 2010 or later, and included the keywords listed above in the title or abstract. Articles reviewed included qualitative and quantitative studies and systematic reviews. Results: In current literature, the incidence of risky sexual behavior has been shown to decrease with either stimulant medication therapy or behavioral therapy for comorbid psychiatric disorders like substance abuse. There are varying conclusions in published literature giving attributes of lowering risky sexual behavior through drug intervention and others to behavioral therapy. These different conclusions of effective therapy come from our limited current understanding of ADHD and the vast array of patient circumstances, such as the varying severity of ADHD, other psychiatric symptoms, and other behavioral influences in the patient's life. Through these studies, we can conclude that patient-centered approaches are pivotal in addressing risky sexual behaviors. Conclusion: These results indicate that ADHD symptoms can be managed with stimulant medication; however, psychiatric therapy shows a promising effect on decreasing risky sexual behavior among adolescents with ADHD, especially for those presenting with psychiatric comorbidities. To decrease risky sexual behavior and its consequences, medication alone may not be effective for most adolescent patients with ADHD, and early intervention for adolescents with ADHD is essential. By translating these findings into clinical care, we can move toward reducing the negative sexual health outcomes experienced by adolescents with ADHD.en_US
dc.titleADHD Management in Adolescents and its Impact to Lower Incidence of Risky Sexual Behavioren_US