Catheter Directed Thrombolytic therapy for Pediatric Cerebral Sinus Vein Thrombosis

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2020

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Hamby, Tyler
Philip, Sarah
Tilley, Jo
Torres, Marcela

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Abstract

Purpose: Cerebral sinus vein thrombosis (CSVT) involves the thrombosis of the dural sinus and/or cerebral veins and is considered a form of stroke. No randomized clinical trials have been conducted on pediatric CSVT so current guidelines for treatment have been extrapolated primarily from adult studies. Method: This is a retrospective case review of patients treated with MT (Mechanical thrombectomy)/Catheter Directed Thrombolysis (CDT) for their CSVT at Cook Children's Medical Center. Results: Five children (aged 4 to 14 years) diagnosed with CSVT of multiple sinuses were treated with MT/CDT after failing anticoagulation treatment. Three patients had systemic bleeding prior to initiation of anticoagulation. All children were treated with UFH (unfractionated heparin) and due to neurologic deterioration and/or worsening of imaging findings needed MT/CDT. All cases had partial resolution of the sinus vein thrombosis, although 1 had quick re-occlusion. Post procedure bleeding happened in 1 patient and 2 patients developed petechial brain hemorrhages. Four patients had great neurologic recovery and minimal deficits, but 1 had significant neurologic deficits. One patient died from lupus complications. Conclusion: Endovascular therapy including MT and CDT with tPA (tissue plasminogen activator) in conjunction with systemic UFH, may have a role in pediatric patients with CSVT who have deterioration despite initial anticoagulation. In our series, after procedures, all patients had partial resolution of their CSVT (but 1 had quick re-occlusion) and 4 out of 5 patients had good neurologic outcomes despite coma or extensive CSVT.

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