Browsing by Subject "estrogens"
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Item17Beta-Estradiol Suppresses Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Nuclear Factor Kappa B Activation in HT22 Cells(2008-05-01) Kim, Pil J.; Simpkins; Singh; YangKim, Pil J., 17beta-estradiol suppresses hydrogen peroxide-induced nuclear factor κappa B activation in HT22 cells. Master of Science (Biomedical Sciences), May, 2008, 78pp., 20 illustrations, 66 titles. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are natural byproducts of normal cellular reactions. They are oxygen ions, free (non)radicals, and peroxides that are highly reactive with normal macromolecules, such as lipids, DNA, and proteins. Cells are normally able to defend against the damages of ROS via enzymes that neutralize them into water. However, when cells are not able to cope with the accumulation of ROS, distributions in signaling pathways and gene transcription will occur, which will ultimately lead to cell death. It is now widely accepted that increased oxidative stress-induced damage in the brain is a major cause of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Nuclear factor κappa-B (NFκB) is not only a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor but also a signaling protein that is activated by ROS-induced oxidative stress. Our laboratory has demonstrated the neuroprotective effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) are elicited via an anti-oxidant effect. The purpose of this project was to determine the role of NFκB activation in E2-mediated neuroprotection against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress. HT-22, a murine immortalized hippocampal neuronal cell line, was utilized to determine whether NFκB is activated by hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and whether E2 suppresses H2O2-induced NFκB activation. We observed that H2O2 activated NFκB by phosphorylation of IκBα (pIκBα), one of the NFκB inhibitor proteins, reduction of total IκBα, and induction of NFκB (p65) nuclear translocation. In contrast, E2 suppressed H2O2-induced NFκB activation by dramatic reducing pIκBα, increasing total IκBα, and inhibiting p65 nuclear translocation. Our results show that one of the mechanisms by which estrogens are neuroprotective against oxidative stress is through the attenuation of H2O2-induced NFκB activation. ItemA Novel Prodrug Approach for Central Nervous System-Selective Estrogen Therapy(MDPI, 2019-11-19) Prokai-Tatrai, Katalin; Prokai, LaszloBeneficial effects of estrogens in the central nervous system (CNS) results from the synergistic combination of their well-orchestrated genomic and non-genomic actions, making them potential broad-spectrum neurotherapeutic agents. However, owing to unwanted peripheral hormonal burdens by any currently known non-invasive drug administrations, the development of estrogens as safe pharmacotherapeutic modalities cannot be realized until they are confined specifically and selectively to the site of action. We have developed small-molecule bioprecursor prodrugs carrying the para-quinol scaffold on the steroidal A-ring that are preferentially metabolized in the CNS to the corresponding estrogens. Here, we give an overview of our discovery of these prodrugs. Selected examples are shown to illustrate that, independently of the route of administrations and duration of treatments, these agents produce high concentration of estrogens only in the CNS without peripheral hormonal liability. 10beta,17beta-Dihydroxyestra-1,4-dien-3-one (DHED) has been the best-studied representative of this novel type of prodrugs for brain and retina health. Specific applications in preclinical animal models of centrally-regulated and estrogen-responsive human diseases, including neurodegeneration, menopausal symptoms, cognitive decline and depression, are discussed to demonstrate the translational potential of our prodrug approach for CNS-selective and gender-independent estrogen therapy with inherent therapeutic safety. ItemModulation of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase by 17-Beta Estradiol(2008-05-01) Gottipati, Srinivas; Thomas YorioGottipati, Srinivas. Modulation of manganese superoxide dismutase activity by 17-beta estradiol. Master of Science (Cell Biology and Genetics), May, 2008. We have previously reported that 17β-Estradiol (17β-E2) can protect human lens epithelial cells against oxidative stress by preserving mitochondrial function, acting as a positive regulator of the MAPK signal transduction pathway. While pERK plays a significant role in stabilizing the inner mitochondrial membrane to maintain the mitochondrial membrane potential during oxidative stress, the protective mechanisms activated by 17β-E2 are probably multifactorial acting via both genomic and non genomic pathways. This study examined the effects of 17β-E2 on the expression and activity of MnSOD, which is present exclusively in the mitochondria, as a possible mechanism by which it affords protection against oxidative stress. Our results demonstrate that 17β-E2 rapidly increases the activity of MnSOD in a time dependent manner. This augmentation of activity of MnSOD by 17β-E2 is seen in the absence of a corresponding increase in the mRNA and protein expression, thereby which estrogens protect the cells against oxidative stress will help us in developing estrogens to be useful therapies for the prevention of cataract in postmenopausal women and non feminizing estrogens may provide similar protection in men.