Determining Effective Collection and Identification Measures of Estradiol in African-American Women




Askew, Jasmun
Dodgen, Leilani
Kitzman-Ulrich, Heather


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Purpose: Estrogen is important for overall health and reproduction, and has been linked to obesity. Currently, estrogen is time and cost intensive to measure. The purpose of this research was to establish a more cost-effective way to measure estradiol in community based settings, and to determine a methodology for collection and identification of peak estradiol levels. Methods: Four saliva samples, medication information, and previous menstrual cycle history from 61 premenopausal and postmenopausal African-American women were collected over a 4-6 week time period. The saliva samples were analyzed by an independent laboratory to identify levels of estradiol (E2). A primary sample was defined as the sample that was collected on or most closely aligned with day 13 of the menstrual cycle when estradiol peaks. A secondary sample was identified if a primary sample was not aligned with day 13 of the menstrual cycle. The secondary sample was determined by projecting the next menstrual cycle period. A secondary sample and the average of all samples were calculated to determine the best method for identifying peak estradiol levels. Results: Using this protocol, for the premenopausal subjects, 56.3% of their primary samples were equal to their peak estradiol sample, and 37.5% of their average estradiol samples were equal to their peak sample. Only 6.3% of the participants’ secondary samples were equal to their peak level. For the postmenopausal women, 73.9% of the participants’ average samples were equal to or ≤ .03 of their peak estradiol sample. Conclusion: This data suggests that this modified protocol demonstrates preliminary ability to identify peak estradiol levels in a community setting in a cost-effective and time efficient manner.Objective: To examine the presence of ethyl benzene (EB) in ambient air in residential areas experiencing natural gas extraction and processing (E&P) and identify potential health impacts. Background: Residential communities affected by “urban drilling” have raised concerns about potential health effects from exposure to toxic chemicals. This study examines ethyl benzene (EB) in ambient air in residential communities experiencing E&P operations and potential health impacts from EB exposure. Natural gas processing occurring at pad sites located in residential areas were identified as potential sources of EB emissions. Methodology: A meta-analysis was performed and articles related to health effects from EB exposure evaluated. Databases searched included: Pub-Med, Scopus, Science direct and TOXLINE. Keywords were ethyl benzene, health effects, occupational exposure, natural gas and ambient air. Initially, 500 articles on the health effects of EB were selected. Publication dates ranged from 1967 to 2014. Inclusion criteria were occupational exposure, health effects, ambient air and toxicological animal studies. Exclusion criteria were soil and groundwater contamination, and EB exposure from other sources like cigarette smoke. Retrieved abstracts were evaluated for relation to study focus. Fifty articles were selected and reviewed as full text. Results: Occupational studies of EB exposed workers in natural gas and petrochemical industries, confirmed multi-system toxic effects. Animal studies supported the findings. Adverse health effects included respiratory, cardiovascular, reproductive, hematologic, digestive/liver, excretory and endocrine impairment. Ambient air monitoring studies confirmed elevated levels of EB in residential communities experiencing urban drilling. Conclusion: Communities where natural gas E&P operations are occurring may experience occupational-like exposure to EB and elevated risk of adverse health effect when compared to other areas. Current literature on health effects from EB exposure is lacking and limited to occupational studies. Future studies examining occupational-like EB exposures in residential communities experiencing urban drilling are recommended.