Elucidation of Mechanism and Molecular Determinants Important in Picrotoxin Action in the 5-Hydroxytryptamine Type 3 Receptor

Das, Paromita
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Das, Paromita, Elucidation of mechanism and molecular determinants important in picrotoxin action in the 5-hydroxytryptamin type 3 receptor. Doctor of Philosophy (Pharmacology and Neuroscience), September 2003, pp. 192, 3 tables, 26 illustrations, 67 titles. The 5-HT3 receptor belongs to the superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels (LGIC), which mediate fast neurotransmission. Till date, only two subtypes of the receptor i.e. 5-HT3A and 5-HT3B have been investigated. The GABAA receptor antagonist picrotoxin inhibits other anion-selective members of the LGIC. Whether PTX inhibits the cation-selective 5-HT3 receptors was previously unknown. Thus, the primary goal of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of action of PTX and identify the amino acids involved in the action of PTX in 5-HT3 receptors. The overall hypothesis tested was that PTX inhibits the 5-HT3 receptor by interacting in the ion channel. PTX-mediated blockade of the 5-HT3A receptors was non-competitive and use-facilitated similar to GABAA receptors suggesting a conserved site of action of these ligands. The inhibitory effect of PTX was reduced drastically in heteromeric 5-HT3A/3B receptors, compared to homomeric 5-HT3A receptors. Picrotoxin should prove to be a useful probe for determining the presence of homomeric vs. heteromeric 5-HT3 receptors in native tissue and recombinant receptor preparations. In anion-selective ion channels, the 2’, 3’ and 6’resides in cytoplasmic aspect of TM2 are known to modulate PTX sensitivity. While mutation of 2’ and 3’ residues in 5-dramatic loss of sensitivity to PTX in 5-HT3A receptors. A converse mutation at 6’ residue in the 5-HT3B subunit caused gain of sensitivity to PTX, suggesting that 6’ is a key determinant of PTX sensitivity. A novel finding was the involvement of 7’ residue in increasing PTX sensitivity in 5-HT3A but not the 5-HT3B subunit. The lack of specific binding by radioligand [3H]EBOB in 5-HT3A receptors suggested that the site of action of convulsants may be different from that anion-selective receptors. The overall results suggest that PTX interacts from that in the anion-selective receptors. The overall results suggest that PTX interact in the ion channel in the 5-HT3 receptors but also underscores the complexity of its interaction with LGICs.