Evaluating the anti-leukemic effect of clotam and copper-clotam using CCRF-CEM cell lines

Date

2021

Authors

Patel, Krishna
Siraj, Sohail
Basha, Riyaz
Sankpal, Umesh

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0000-0001-9183-5502 (Patel, Krishna)

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Abstract

Purpose: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common type of cancer in children younger than 5 years. Patients with ALL have bone marrow that produces immature white blood cells, which are unable to effectively fight infections. NSAIDs are common pain reliving agents that act through COX inhibition, which stops the production of prostaglandins. Clotam (Tolfenamic Acid/TA) is an NSAID that has anti-tumor proliferative effects. It works through targeting specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors that assist cancer cells in inhibiting apoptosis. Our objective is to test TA and copper-TA (Cu-TA), a derivative of TA, to induce an anti-leukemic response. Methods: The T-cell ALL cell line CCRF-CEM was obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (Manassas, VA) and cells were cultured as per the supplier's instructions. A cell viability assay was performed in which cells were plated in a 96-well plate and treated with increasing concentrations of TA and Cu-TA. After 48-hours, the cells were lysed, and the amount of ATP in the cells was measured using luminescence. Using this data, IC50 values were calculated. Results: The IC50 values showed both TA and Cu-TA had anti-cancer proliferative effects. Cu-TA was 15 times more potent than TA in its ability to kill CCRF-CEM cells. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that Cu-TA is more effective than TA for killing CCRF-CEM cells. This study suggests better implications of Cu-TA in ALL therapy, if further tested using pre-clinical models.

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