Prenatal oral health guidelines: a theory- and practice-informed approach to survey development using a modified-Delphi technique and cognitive interviews




Vamos, Cheryl A.
Griner, Stacey B.
Daley, Ellen M.
Cayama, Morgan Richardson
Beckstead, Jason
Boggess, Kim
Quinonez, Rocio B.
Damschroder, Laura


0000-0002-2774-5841 (Griner, Stacey B.)

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BioMed Central Ltd.


BACKGROUND: Pregnancy presents an opportune time for oral health promotion and intervention; however, implementation of the prenatal oral health guidelines remains a challenge among prenatal and oral health providers. The purpose of this study was twofold: To employ a theory-based approach to identify high-priority Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) constructs with the greatest potential to impact prenatal oral health guideline implementation, and to operationalize and pre-test survey items based on the prioritized CFIR constructs. Identifying barriers and facilitators to guideline implementation will inform the development of targeted interventions that address gaps in adherence which can positively impact oral-systemic health. METHODS: The online survey development process employed three rounds of a modified-Delphi technique with prenatal (i.e., MD/DO, CNM) and oral health (i.e., DMD) Practice Advisory Board Members, cognitive interviews with prenatal and oral health providers, and deliberations among the research team and a Scientific Advisory Board (OBGYN, pediatric dentist, and researchers). High-impact CFIR constructs were identified and translated into survey items that were subsequently piloted and finalized. RESULTS: During three modified-Delphi rounds, a total of 39 CFIR constructs were evaluated with final input and deliberations with the Practice Advisory Board, Scientific Advisory Board, and the research team achieving consensus on 19 constructs. The instrument was pre-tested with four prenatal and two oral health providers. Overall, participants reported that the survey items were feasible to respond to, took an appropriate length of time to complete, and were well-organized. Participants identified specific areas of improvement to clarify CFIR items. The final survey instrument included 21 CFIR items across four domains, with five constructs included from the intervention characteristics domain, two from the process domain, two from the outer setting domain, and 12 from the inner setting domain. CONCLUSIONS: Lessons learned from the survey development process include the importance of soliciting diverse scientific and practice-based input, distinguishing between importance/impact and direction of impact (barrier/facilitator), and the need for additional qualitative methods during interdisciplinary collaborations. Overall, this study illustrated an iterative approach to identifying high-priority CFIR constructs that may influence the implementation of the prenatal oral health guidelines into practice settings.



Vamos, C. A., Griner, S. B., Daley, E. M., Cayama, M. R., Beckstead, J., Boggess, K., Quinonez, R. B., & Damschroder, L. (2022). Prenatal oral health guidelines: a theory- and practice-informed approach to survey development using a modified-Delphi technique and cognitive interviews. Implementation science communications, 3(1), 126.


© The Author(s) 2022.


Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)