Do Depression Rates Differ by SES Factors in Females Ages 25-45 from States with Varying Income Equality?




Le, Christian
Hartos, Jessica PhD
Lord, David
Miller, Marcus
Uhlig, Michael


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Purpose: Research shows that depression is related to socioeconomic status (SES); however, few studies have focused specifically on depression and SES in females during young- to mid-adulthood, which would have important ramifications on parenting, work productivity, and interpersonal relationships. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess whether depression rates differ by SES factors in representative samples of females ages 25-44 years from states with varying levels of income inequality. Methods: This cross-sectional analysis used 2013 BRFSS data for females ages 25 to 44 years from Louisiana, New Hampshire, New York, and Utah. The relationship between SES variables (income, education, and employment) and depression was assessed using multiple logistic regression while controlling for demographic and psychosocial variables. Results: About 19-31% of females reported depression across all four states. In adjusted analyses, none of the SES variables were related to depression across all four states. However, after adjusting for all variables in the model, both low general health and being a smoker were related to depression in each state. Conclusions: This study found that SES was not related to depression in representative samples of females ages 25 to 44 years across four states after controlling for other demographic and psychosocial variables. However, health status and smoking status were related to depression in all four states. Practitioners should assess mental health status in patients from this target group who have low general health and/or are smokers, and vice versa.