The relationship of Hypertension and related Cardiovascular Risk factors to Executive Functioning in Mexican-Americans

dc.contributor.authorHall, James
dc.contributor.authorJohnson, Leigh
dc.contributor.authorO'Bryant, Sid
dc.creatorVintimilla, Raul
dc.description.abstractBackground: The effect of high blood pressure on cognitive domains is unclear but the literature suggests that the primary impact is on cognitive impairment in executive functions and slowing of mental processing speed. These cognitive functions are especially vulnerable to vascular change. Hispanics are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease, cognitive decline and dementias, and there is no sufficient literature about this relationship in this growing segment of the population. The purpose of this study was to examine the link between blood pressure and executive functioning in Mexican-Americans. Methods: Data were analyzed in 426 participants from the Health and Aging Brain Among Latino Elders study (HABLE). Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks include hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and abdominal circumference over 40 inches. The presence of these risks was determined from self-report, use of medication, and lab results. Trails B was used as an index of executive function and entered as the dependent variable in the models. A one-way ANOVA was conducted to assess the effect of CVD risk factors on executive function. Linear regressions were utilized to examine the relationship between hypertension and other CVD risk factors with executive function. Age was entered as a covariate in the model. Results: Within the total sample, ANOVA revealed a statically significance difference between groups (F (4,495) = 3.15, p = .01). The post hoc tests showed that the individuals with two (M = 7.7, SD = 3.7), three (M = 7.4, SD = 3.9) or four (M = 6.9, SD = 3.6) risk factors differ significantly at p B = -1.6, 95% CI [-2.36, -.80], p = .00). Hypertension explained a 4% of variance in Trails B scores, (R2 = .04, F (1,398) = 15.78, p = .00). None of the other CVD risk were significant. Conclusion: Our findings suggested a relationship between diagnosis of hypertension and executive function in Mexican-Americans. No other CVD risk factors independently had a significant link with executive function. Having more than one CVD risks regardless of its nature was related to lower executive functioning. The results of this study support literature that suggested that the effects of high blood pressure on cognitive domains primarily involve executive functioning.
dc.titleThe relationship of Hypertension and related Cardiovascular Risk factors to Executive Functioning in Mexican-Americans