Characterization of a Novel Receptor CS1 in Human Lymphocytes; Studies in Natural Killer Cells and B-Lymphocytes




Lee, Jae Kyung


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The purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of CS1 on human lymphocytes. The molecular and functional characterization of CS1 receptor in the natural killer (NK) cells and B lymphocytes was investigated. CS1 (CRACC, novel Ly9) is a novel member of the CD2 family receptor expressed on natural killer (NK), T cells, activated Bcells and dendritic cells. To examine the existence of isoform of CS1, library from NK cells was screened based on wild type of CS1 (CS1-L). A splice variant form of CS1 (CS1-S), which lacks immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motifs (ITSMs) in cytoplasmic domain, was identified. To demonstrate the function of CS1 on human NK cells, transfectants that stably express each isoform were generated. CS1-L was able to mediate redirect cytotoxicity of P815 target cells as well as intracellular calcium influx in the presence of monoclonal antibody against CS1 suggesting that CS1-L is an activating receptor. CS1-S showed no effect on the cytolytic function and calcium influx suggesting that CS1-L and CS1-S may differentially regulate human NK cell functions. Although CS1 was also cloned from cDNA library of human B-lymphocytes as well as of NK cells, very little is known regarding its biology on human B-lymphocytes. Here I investigated the expressions and functions of CS1 in human B cells. Human B cells expresses only CS1-L isoform and the levels of CS1 expression are upregulated after activation in vitro. Importantly, monoclonal antibody of CS1 (1G10 mAb) strongly enhances proliferation of both freshly isolated and activated B cells. The enhanced proliferation effects of CS1 were most prominent on B cells activated by anti-CD40 mAbs and/or IL-4. Human cytokine microarray results indicated CS1 enhanced mRNA transcripts of fms-line tyrosine kinase 3 ligand, lymphotoxin A, tumor necrosis factor, and IL-14 which are related with mostly growth promoting activity. These results suggest that autorine cytokines might be the mediators for the function of CS1 on B cell in which it can induce proliferation of activated B cells. This study suggests that CS1 plays important role in human NK cells and B-lymphocytes.