Identification of proteins affected by increased intraocular pressure in the glaucomatous female mouse retina by label-free proteomics

dc.creatorZaman, Khadizaen_US
dc.creatorMorgan, Autumn B.en_US
dc.creatorNguyen, Vienen_US
dc.creatorProkai-Tatrai, Katalinen_US
dc.creatorInman, Deniseen_US
dc.creatorProkai, Laszloen_US
dc.description.abstractPurpose: Mass spectrometry-based retina proteomics using animal models of human diseases has enabled novel insights into ocular neuropathology’s such as in glaucoma, as it holds promise for disease biomarker discovery. However, publicly accessible data on retina proteins affected by ocular hypertension (OHT) in animal models utilized males, or sex was not disclosed. Recently, female animals were chosen to advance therapeutic antibody development against glaucomatous neurodegeneration with retina proteomics support. Therefore, our retinal proteomics-based investigation intended to fill a knowledge gap by focusing on OHT-induced changes of protein expressions in the glaucomatous female retinae compared to normotensive controls. Methods: Proteins were extracted from the retinae of normotensive female mice (control, n=5) and OHT mice (n=5) in which increase of intraocular pressure was induced by the magnetic microbead method. After reduction, alkylation and digestion by trypsin, bottom-up shotgun proteomics analyses of the samples were done using data-dependent nanoflow liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC–ESI-MS/MS) on a hybrid Orbitrap instrument (Thermo Fisher Scientific). MS/MS spectra were searched against the UniProt mouse protein sequence database using the SEQUEST search engine in Proteome Discoverer (version 2.4; Thermo Fisher Scientific). Validation of proteins identifications using stringent criteria and label-free quantifications (LFQ) employing spectral counting to detect regulated proteins between groups using t-tests were performed using Scaffold (version 5.1.2; Proteome Software). Targeted proteomics on selected biomarkers was designed and analyzed using SkylineTM (MacCoss Lab software). Mapping to protein interaction networks and biological processes was done through Ingenuity Pathway Analysis® (IPA®, Qiagen). Results: Our discovery driven data-dependent nanoflow LC–ESI-­MS/MS analyses covered nearly 1200 retinal proteins with <1% false discovery rate. Among these proteins, 168 were significantly affected by OHT based on LFQ. Bioinformatics analyses by IPA® revealed important diseases and functions triggered by OHT pertaining to neurological and ophthalmic pathologies. The topmost protein interaction network represented neurological disease, organismal injury and abnormalities. The molecule activity predictor of IPA® revealed important canonical pathways, including inhibition of synaptogenesis signaling and mitochondrial dysfunction leading to degeneration of central nervous system tissue. Another prominent protein interaction network represented nervous system development and function, as well as organ development. In addition, this network also displayed downregulation of neuroprotective crystallins owing to OHT. Neuronal crystallins have been identified not only as biomarkers to monitor the progression of OHT-induced retinal neuropathy and evaluate neuroprotective interventions, but also as potential druggable targets or possible protein therapeutics to prevent glaucomatous neurodegeneration. Parallel reaction monitoring-based targeted proteomics validation of significant OHT-regulated retina proteins are currently underway to establish them as potential preclinical biomarkers and/or therapeutic targets. In addition, our studies will be expanded to investigate sex as a biological variable affecting ocular neurodegeneration associated with glaucoma. Conclusion: We anticipate that biological information one can derive from our dataset at the protein expression level will provide inspiration for future hypothesis-driven experimental studies focusing on knowledge gaps involving the biology of glaucomatous neurodegeneration.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipD.M.I. and K.P.-T. were supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health (EY026662 and EY027005, respectively). L.P. acknowledges endowment BK-0031 from the Robert A. Welch Foundation.en_US
dc.titleIdentification of proteins affected by increased intraocular pressure in the glaucomatous female mouse retina by label-free proteomicsen_US