Leading Predictors of COVID-19-Related Poor Mental Health in Adult Asian Indians: An Application of Extreme Gradient Boosting and Shapley Additive Explanations

Date

2023-01-09

Authors

Ikram, Mohammad
Shaikh, Nazneen F.
Vishwanatha, Jamboor K.
Sambamoorthi, Usha

ORCID

0000-0002-0266-6020 (Vishwanatha, Jamboor K.)
0000-0001-8311-1360 (Sambamoorthi, Usha)

Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title

Publisher

MDPI

Abstract

During the COVID-19 pandemic, an increase in poor mental health among Asian Indians was observed in the United States. However, the leading predictors of poor mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic in Asian Indians remained unknown. A cross-sectional online survey was administered to self-identified Asian Indians aged 18 and older (N = 289). Survey collected information on demographic and socio-economic characteristics and the COVID-19 burden. Two novel machine learning techniques-eXtreme Gradient Boosting and Shapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP) were used to identify the leading predictors and explain their associations with poor mental health. A majority of the study participants were female (65.1%), below 50 years of age (73.3%), and had income >/= $75,000 (81.0%). The six leading predictors of poor mental health among Asian Indians were sleep disturbance, age, general health, income, wearing a mask, and self-reported discrimination. SHAP plots indicated that higher age, wearing a mask, and maintaining social distancing all the time were negatively associated with poor mental health while having sleep disturbance and imputed income levels were positively associated with poor mental health. The model performance metrics indicated high accuracy (0.77), precision (0.78), F1 score (0.77), recall (0.77), and AUROC (0.87). Nearly one in two adults reported poor mental health, and one in five reported sleep disturbance. Findings from our study suggest a paradoxical relationship between income and poor mental health; further studies are needed to confirm our study findings. Sleep disturbance and perceived discrimination can be targeted through tailored intervention to reduce the risk of poor mental health in Asian Indians.

Description

Citation

Ikram, M., Shaikh, N. F., Vishwanatha, J. K., & Sambamoorthi, U. (2022). Leading Predictors of COVID-19-Related Poor Mental Health in Adult Asian Indians: An Application of Extreme Gradient Boosting and Shapley Additive Explanations. International journal of environmental research and public health, 20(1), 775. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010775

Rights

© 2022 by the authors.

License

Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)