Impact of Sp3 and BIRC 5 Expression on the Survival of Adrenocortical Carcinoma Patients




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Survivin (also known as baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat containing 5 or BIRC5) is a member of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins family and linked to the poor prognosis of several cancers. The Specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors Sp1 and Sp3 are known to regulate BIRC5. Even though the role of Sp transcription factors in regulating BIRC5 is known, their correlation among cancer patients’ survival is not evaluated in detail. The purpose of this project was to study the correlation of Sp3 and Birc5 expression with prognosis in adrenocortical carcinoma utilizing the data sets available in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and aggressive cancer originating in the adrenal cortex, the outer layer of the adrenal glands. ACC is characterized by the uncontrolled growth of cells in the adrenal cortex, leading to the formation of tumors. These tumors can produce excess hormones, causing various symptoms. ACC is often diagnosed at an advanced stage, and surgical resection is the primary treatment. Prognosis is generally poor, emphasizing the need for improved early detection methods and targeted therapies. Using the TCGA data set comprising 79 samples, the impact of the overexpression of Sp3 or BIRC5 on ACC patient survival was analyzed. Results indicated that survival of patients exhibiting elevated levels of Sp3 or BIRC5 was significantly low (Sp3: p=0.0041; BIRC5: p=0.0001) compared to those with lower expression of these markers. Furthermore, considering sex as a variable, we observed a significant difference in survival for the patients with differential expression of Sp3 and BIRC5 (Sp3: p=0.0015; BIRC5: p= 0.0001). Survival rates were notably low across both female and male patients. Consistent with published literature on other cancer types, our observations revealed a negative impact of BIRC5 and Sp3 overexpression on the survival of ACC patients. Emerging evidence suggests the involvement of genetic and biological factors that may contribute to variations in tumor behavior. This research offers valuable insights into the importance of BIRC5 and Sp proteins in cancer. This may shed light on the identification of high-risk populations based on the expression of these markers and encourage the development of targeted interventions. Effective interventions or targeted therapies can potentially enhance overall survival rates for individuals with cancer by improving management strategies.