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    Seniors Assisting in Geriatric Education (SAGE): Reynolds Program addresses the lack of training in geriatrics and provides a model for interprofessional education.
    (2015-03) Marquez-Hall, Sandra; Lane, Yolanda; Knebl, Janice
    Seniors Assisting in Geriatric Education (SAGE) is a program that helps healthcare students develop competency with older adults and strengthen their clinical applications of medical education through an interprofessional team experience. Two objectives for this study: 1) To increase development of competency in attitudes, knowledge, and skills in the care of older adults; and, 2) To provide an Interprofessional experience where students learn about, with, and from collaborating as a team member in the context of working with an older adult. Senior volunteers 60 years and older are mentors in the program. Student teams meet with senior mentors in their homes for a series of home visits over the course of a two year period. SAGE curriculum guides program content and is delivered through an online learning system. Student teams conduct eight home visits which include conducting environmental home safety and nutritional assessments; medical history, physiology of aging, bio-psychosocial interviews; medication reconciliation, review of community resources, and end of life issues. A survey was administered to students to evaluate perceptions of learning after participating in the SAGE Program; this is a self-report model. A quantitative survey using a five-point Likert Scale evaluates student perceptions of learning. Findings (n=332) revealed modest levels of student confidence and attitudes toward geriatric patients (3.6), and comfort in performing physical examinations (3.5). Higher levels were found in recognizing unique medical and psycho-social issues (3.8); competency in interviewing, physical assessment and examination skills (3.8); and practice using ADLs and IADLs (3.8). Highest overall scores were found in environmental home safety and falls risk (3.9); use of Mini-Mental Status Exam (3.9); and real world experience (4.0). The SAGE experiential learning program provides insight into medical student perceptions toward older adults using a senior mentoring and home visit model. Medical education in geriatrics combined with experiential learning in student teams resulted in modest improvement in student perceptions of confidence and patient interaction.
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    Helping students beat the odds: Large scale Freshman Research Initiative improves student performance and persistence in the sciences
    (2015-03) Simmons, Sarah; Rodenbusch, Stacia; Hartos, Jessica; Rankin, Mary Ann
    Purpose: The U.S. is not producing enough graduates in STEM (science-technology-engineering-math) fields to meet current and projected needs. The Freshmen Research Initiative (FRI) is a large-scale undergraduate research program that involves students at the University of Texas at Austin (UT) in authentic research in the areas of biology, chemistry, physics, computer science, astronomy, and math beginning early in their undergraduate career. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of FRI in improving undergraduate student persistence and success in the sciences. Methods: Using data from 2006 to 2012, we assessed whether participation in FRI showed differences in passing gateway courses, accumulating credit, remaining in academic track, maintaining adequate GPAs, and obtaining a degree. Multiple logistic regression analyses with adjusted odds ratios (AORs) were conducted to determine any significant differences in outcomes between FRI participants and all other students in their CNS entering freshman cohort after adjusting for demographic characteristics, college preparedness, and participation in other college programs. Results: Differences in demographic characteristics, college preparedness, and participation in other college programs were found between FRI participants and non-FRI participants. However, after adjusting for all factors related to demographic characteristics, college preparedness, and participation in other college programs, FRI participants were significantly more likely to have desired outcomes such as having a GPA ≥ 3.0 and graduating with a science degree within four years and were significantly less likely to have undesired outcomes such as having a GPA < 2.0 and failing science classes. Conclusions: The results indicate that FRI participation was related to improved undergraduate student persistence and success in the sciences. Programs like FRI may help students overcome risk factors such as lack of college preparedness and underrepresented status, and, thus, address our national shortage of STEM graduates.
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    Pre-Clinical Medical Student Attitudes Toward Interprofessional Practice
    (2015-03) Dolan, Kathryn J.; Nejtek, Vicki A.
    Hypothesis: (1) Brief exposure to Interprofessional Practice (IP) curriculum will improve student attitudes about working within a medical team model of care. Objectives: The IP curriculum was created to capitalize on the expertise from multiple healthcare professionals working together to enhance patients’ quality of care, resolve safety issues, and improve prognostic outcomes [1]. The integrated model of care is especially relevant to the osteopathic philosophy of holistic medical practice. Thus, students who are exposed to IP curriculum should have a better understanding about the importance of providing patient care within an interdisciplinary team of healthcare professionals. First, a longitudinal, paired comparison study of pre-clinical medical students who matriculated in July, 2012 and had received at least one formal course of IP education was designed to measure pre- and post-course attitudes about interprofessional healthcare. A larger cross-sectional study was conducted to examine potential relationships among attitude response items from pre-clinical medical students who matriculated in 2010 - 2014. Materials and Methods: Pre- and post-course attitudes were measured with the Attitudes Toward Health Care Teams (ATHCT) Scale, a 21-item validated tool [2]. Comparisons were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA with semester entered as a grouping variable. A correlation matrix was used to examine attitude response item relationships in the cross-sectional analyses. A 95% confidence interval and a probability of >0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: 190 students completed the ATHCT in both the pre- and post-course conditions. Out of 21 response items, 10 showed no significant improvement in attitudes such as team care results in more complications (item #1, p = 0.29), team care results in holistic patient care (item #5, p = 0.44), increased satisfaction (item #8, p = 0.28), or patient needs are better met (item #20, p = 0.15). Conclusions: Although pre-clinical medical students were exposed to various interprofessional team experiences (community service, preceptorship) and at least one formal IP class session, these data show some resistance and misunderstanding about the importance of the team model of care. More IP coursework exposure and clinical faculty teaching by example in the clinic may help strengthen the team model of care.
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    Empowerment Evaluation: A Learning Model
    (2015-03) Chhetri, Shlesma; Spence-Almaguer, Emily
    Purpose: To demonstrate the use of empower evaluation as a teaching/learning and it's role in promoting inter professional Education. Background: A successful community program must include a continuous quality improvement system that increases its likelihood of accomplishing the set goals (Fetterman & Wandersman, 2005). In order to build this continuous system, stakeholders must have the tools to plan, implement and evaluate their program. Often community organizations lack these tools, thus, creating a barrier in achieving their specified goals. Empowerment evaluation aims to provide such tools to the developers and stakeholders. Driven by the idea of improvement, in empowerment evaluation participants have full control and ownership of their decisions (Fetterman & Wandersman, 2005). Additionally, empowerment evaluation recognizes inequalities and thrives to bridge the gap through social justice, inclusion, community involvement and democratic participation. Hence, it is a necessary approach to a successful program. Method: In a graduate level evaluation course offered by Behavioral and Community Health Department at University of North Texas Health Science Center, a group of students conduct empowerment evaluation with partner organizations as a part of their service learning project each semester. The group initiates this process through dialogue with the organization; helping stakeholders reflect on their work, goals, achievements, existing data collection and management methods, and a vision for the future. Hence, this course provides empowerment evaluation as a teaching as well as a learning model. Results:Through this course two successful empowerment evaluations were completed during spring and fall semesters of 2014. Two community organizations were involved in this process in the respective semesters. The partner organizations shared their anxiety attached to large data management and interpretations and identified it to be one of their major barriers in developing full ownership of their respective programs. They expressed their desire to learn to effectively manage their data which would better equip them in keeping track of their progress. The class, in turn, helped these organizations understand and learn the simple ways in which data can be managed and presented these ideas to the organizations as the final project. Both partners are now implementing these ideas in various capacities. Hence, both organizations have increased their sense of ownership of their respective programs. Conclusion: This poster aims to highlight this unique approach to empowerment evaluation as a teaching/learning model. Moreover, the poster hopes to shed light on the importance of inter-professional learning; collaborating with organizations that work parallel to the fields of public health and appreciating co-learning in its truest sense.
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    Consecutive Missed School Days in Relationship with Asthma Status and Environmental Air Quality: Findings from a School based Asthma Initiative
    (2015-03) Jegede, Opeyemi; Allsopp, Leslie C.; Mudasiru, Omobola; Sterling, David
    Objectives: Compare the rate of sets of consecutive missed school days between children with and without asthma. Determine the relationship between exposure to poor environmental air quality measures and missed school days. Methodology: Data containing the number of school days missed, actual absence dates (N = 14936), and demographics were collected from students (N = 1628) in an elementary and middle school in Fort Worth, Texas. Counts of sets of consecutive missed school days were modeled using negative binomial regression. Partial correlation analysis is being used to identify the relationship between exposure to poor ambient air quality and missed school days. All analyses are conducted using SAS 9.3. Results: For both types of sets of missed days analyzed, children with asthma have adjusted rate ratios of 1.26 (p-value = .050) and 1.24 (p-value = .098) for sets of consecutive missed school days. We hypothesize a positive correlation between absences and poor ambient air quality, with a lag period of 2 days, although we will also evaluate lags of 0, 1, and 3 days. Conclusion: Policies are needed to reduce the impact of asthma on children’s school experience, such as measures to strengthen school asthma services and reduce exposures to environmental triggers.
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    Psychomotor Videos for Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine (OMM) Instruction
    (2015-03) Handoyo, Anthony; Seals, Ryan; Gustowski, Sharon
    Hypothesis: Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine (OMM) lab often consists of demonstration from the stage by a professor accompanied by small group practice with faculty table trainers. However, given a low faculty to student ratio, class demonstrations do not optimize student’s time with table trainers. We hypothesize that our instructional videos will improve student satisfaction by limiting need for class demonstration, thus increasing one on one instruction with table trainers. Research Design: Prospective Experimental – IRB approved. Materials and Methods: We designed videos with written instructions that incorporate psychomotor learning principles for year 2 osteopathic medical students. Instructional videos for Still and Facilitated Positional Release techniques were used in lieu of faculty demonstration during lab. Three surveys were administered to the second year Texas College of Osteopathic Medicine class to assess their satisfaction with the current teaching method compared to the new instructional videos. Clinical competency scores were also compared to the previous year’s class who did not have the videos. Results: The instructional videos improved student confidence and satisfaction when compared to the traditional method. However, no clear statistical significance was found between exam scores when compared to the previous years’ students. Conclusion: The new instructional videos showed improvements in student satisfaction and confidence compared to traditional methods. Use of the videos could allow more time for feedback from faculty table trainers. Exam scores did not improve, however factors involving small sample size and varying faculty graders could account for this finding. Videos could serve a valuable role in the education of osteopathic students in OMM.
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    Peerwise Study for Assessment of Higher Order Thinking in Students
    (2015-03) Kesaria, Jeel M.; Panchal, Hardik K.; Kominski, Carol
    This study investigates the impact of PeerWise software system (Denny et al., 2008) as an instructional strategy to increase the quality of student's ability to construct a multiple-choice question (MCQ's) that tests Higher-Order Thinking (HOT). Today's education system goes beyond recalling and understanding facts, and assessing learning outcomes. Promoting students' HOT skills should be considered as an important educational goal. According to Bloom’s (1956) taxonomy, HOT is about engaging students at the highest levels of thinking to foster stimulating learning environments where students become creators of new ideas, analyzers of problems, generators, and evaluators of knowledge.PeerWiseis a web-based system that supports the creation of MCQ’s by students, allowing them to provide an explanation for their question. It enables students to answer questions generated by other students, and helps them evaluate the quality of each question using a HOT rubric. We conducted statistical analysis on the number of questions created by students, number of questions answered,numberof substantial comments, and average question rating. Additionally, students were given a pretest and posttest before and after the use ofPeerwiseto assess the improvement in HOT skills. We test the benefits of providing PeerWise support and conclude that PeerWise works efficiently to improve HOT skills in students.
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    Seniors in Action: a service learning fall prevention program and the effects of peer interaction on student experience
    (2015-03) White, Michelle; Richardson, Mike; Bugnariu, Nicoleta; Severance, Jennifer
    Purpose: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effects of student to student peer interactions during service learning (SL) activities on the overall learning experience. Materials/Methods: Sixty eight Doctorate of Physical Therapy (DPT) students were randomly assigned to one of two SL activities. SL 1 was a fall prevention program called Seniors in Action, in which each pair of DPT students had to assess fall risk and implement exercise programs working directly with senior participants. Activity 2 was an in-class case study based on the assessment derived from SL 1, including plan of care development without exercise implementation. All students spent 5 hours involved in one of the two SL activities and were supervised by a licensed DPT. Outcomes were assessed by the student responses to pre- and post- surveys using a Likert-like scale and self-reflection comments. Questions on pre- and post- surveys evaluated the anxiety level on working with seniors, confidence level in ability to communicate, screen for risk for falls, interpret results, as well as the effect of peer interaction on facilitating the learning activities. Data was analyzed with paired t-tests. Results: Pre- SL students in Year 2 had significant lower anxiety and higher confidence compared to Year 1 students (p=0.02 and p<0.01 respectively). However students from both years increased their confidence level in PT skills both after the SL 1 and SL 2 (p<0.001 and p=0.01). Anxiety levels decreased in Year 1 students (p=0.03) but did not changed for students in year 2 (p=0.1) post-SL. Students in year 1 reported that peer interaction during SL facilitated their learning more than year 2 student (p= 0.02). Conclusion: The SL activities were effective in meeting a community need, decreasing student anxiety toward geriatric population, improving confidence of professional skills and positive learning experience from peer interaction. Overall reflection comments expressed student satisfaction and affirmed benefits of learning from peers during SL. SL combined with peer pairing provides excellent opportunity for active learning while employing practical application which in turn strengthens a PT program curriculum.
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    A Biopsychosocial Analysis of Professional Undergraduate Medical Education in the United States
    (2015-03) Jaini, Paresh; Herd, Van
    The biopsychosocial model of illness asserts that treating patients is a holistic process, thus emphasizing the importance of holistic medical training. In this light, I have conducted a novel biopsychosocial analysis of three (3) key components (basic sciences, psychology, and sociology) of 21st-century professional medical education in the United States. I conducted a literature review of empirical research, news articles, and medical school curriculum web pages. I found a strong emphasis on the hard sciences in the basic sciences component of (primarily) allopathic medical education. The present analysis is thus limited in scope, due to limited data available for osteopathic, homeopathic, and naturopathic modalities, which are utilized by many patients. Research in these areas is highly recommended. Moreover, the analysis of the psychological component of medical education concludes that professional medical education should teach patient-desired skills and qualities, such as communication and empathy, to their students via practice with simulated and virtual patients, as well exposure to theatre and the humanities. Likewise, medical schools should encourage students to enter primary care and also train their students in sociology to tackle the problems of health inequalities in the United States healthcare system. The final conclusion of this study is that, in order to deliver the most holistic health care possible, it is necessary to expose medical students to the vast array of topics that affect medicine.
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    Student Perceptions of a Flipped Classroom in Physical Therapy Education
    (2015-03) Canifax, April J.; Thomas, Brent A.; Papa, Evan
    Purpose In recent years, colleges and universities in the United States have faced considerable scrutiny for their apparent failure to adequately educate students. Studies suggest that a significant portion of students are not learning the critical thinking, written communication, and complex reasoning skills thought to be at the core of higher education.1 A growing body of literature consistently points to the need to rethink what is taking place in the classroom.2-4 To that end, a novel pedagogical approach has been proposed: the flipped classroom. This instructional model uses instructor’s prerecord lectures posted online for students to watch at home. This allows class time to be dedicated to student-centered learning activities, like problem-based learning and inquiry oriented strategies.5-7 Student and instructor satisfaction regarding this model has been reported in nursing, pharmacy, and medical school curricula8-10, however no research exists regarding student perceptions of the model in a Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) curriculum. The purpose of this study was to identify student perceptions of a flipped classroom in physical therapy education. Methods A five-point Likert scale survey was administered to 2nd year DPT students on the first day of the Evidence-Based Practice III course at the University of North Texas Health Science Center (UNTHSC), Fort Worth, Texas. hosted the survey and links were provided to all students attending the class. All participants were provided with electronic informed consent. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board at UNTHSC. Results 41 students ages 21-35, representing diverse ethnic and educational backgrounds agreed to participate. Approximately ⅔ of respondents were female. The majority of student responses indicated a positive impression of the flipped-classroom. Means of responses to detailed questions were high (3.83-3.95) covering student perceptions of communication skills, personal initiative in the learning process, and interaction with topics expected in a flipped-classroom. The lowest mean response (3.56) was to the survey item “My overall perception of a flipped-classroom is positive.” Conclusion The results of this seminal survey on the efficacy of the flipped classroom in a DPT curriculum suggest that second year DPT students believe that a flipped classroom can enhance skills at the core of higher education. Paradoxically however, participants in this study rated lower on their overall perception of a flipped classroom. Given an increased need for PT education to evolve as team-based healthcare becomes more prevalent,4 shifting to a flipped classroom model could serve to enhance future student’s abilities to thrive in a more collaborative work environment.
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    Integrating Medical Research into the Undergraduate Medical Education Curriculum
    (2015-03) Shah, Deep; Bowman, W. Paul; Smith-Barbaro, Peggy; Jorden, Debra; Wilson, Don P.
    Purpose: Medical research is an important, yet often under represented, component of undergraduate medical education (UME). Though acknowledged, the fundamentals of biomedical research and its application to clinical medicine are infrequently part of the UME curriculum. To address this need, in 2013 – 2014 University of North Texas Health Science Center (UNTHSC) faculty and Cook Children’s Medical Center (CCMC) medical staff came together to formalize a mentored research program for medical students. A collaborative Pediatric Research Program (PRP) was established, with the goal of providing a mentored research experience for medical students designed to enhance research awareness and knowledge through systematic investigation, including research development, testing and evaluation. Methods: Medical Students completing the first year of UME who expressed an interest in pediatric research were eligible to participate in the PRP. Students were given options in various areas of Pediatrics. All of the students were able to participate in their first or second preferred research area in Pediatrics. All administrative procedures and requirements were completed before the program started, including Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative (CITI) and Best Clinical Practices certification. A four week didactic course, which included- i) Research Design and Protocol Development; ii) Literature Review / Copyright and Plagiarism Issues; iii) Data Collection and analysis; and iv) Presentation and Publication Guidelines and Tips, took place during the students’ summer break of 2014. Results: 25 students joined PRP with mentorship of 19 faculty mentors. The faculty mentors were either General/Specialist in Pediatrics (MD/DO) or Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) with research-focused in Pediatrics. Out of 25 students, only 3 chose not to continue their research project in Year II of medical school. The students, who continued research during Year II of medical school, presented status reports of their projects to group of research mentors, administrative staff and fellow students in fall 2014. Conclusions: Majority of students were very satisfied with their mentors’ contributions in helping them achieve their research goals. Most of the students were very satisfied with accessibility to their faculty mentors and research coordinators. Almost all of the students were satisfied with clarity and practicality of program requirements and found the didactic course beneficial.