ItemNovel role of HIV-1 Nef in regulating the ubiquitination of cellular proteins(Frontiers Media S.A., 2023-03-28) Ghaly, Maria; Proulx, Jessica; Borgmann, Kathleen; Park, In-WooOur recent data established that HIV-1 Nef is pivotal in determining the fate of cellular proteins by modulating ubiquitination. However, it is unknown which proteins are ubiquitinated in the presence of Nef, a question critical for understanding the proliferation/restriction strategies of HIV-1 in infected cells. To identify cellular proteins ubiquitinated by Nef, we conducted a proteomic analysis of cellular proteins in the presence and absence of Nef. Proteomic analysis in HEK293T cells indicated that 93 proteins were upregulated and 232 were downregulated in their ubiquitination status by Nef. Computational analysis classified these proteins based on molecular function, biological process, subcellular localization, and biological pathway. Of those proteins, we found a majority of molecular functions to be involved in binding and catalytic activity. With respect to biological processes, a significant portion of the proteins identified were related to cellular and metabolic processes. Subcellular localization analysis showed the bulk of proteins to be localized to the cytosol and cytosolic compartments, which is consistent with the known function and location of Nef during HIV-1 infection. As for biological pathways, the wide range of affected proteins was denoted by the multiple modes to fulfill function, as distinguished from a strictly singular means, which was not detected. Among these ubiquitinated proteins, six were found to directly interact with Nef, wherein two were upregulated and four downregulated. We also identified 14 proteins involved in protein stability through directly participating in the Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS)-mediated proteasomal degradation pathway. Of those proteins, we found six upregulated and eight downregulated. Taken together, these analyses indicate that HIV-1 Nef is integral to regulating the stability of various cellular proteins via modulating ubiquitination. The molecular mechanisms directing Nef-triggered regulation of cellular protein ubiquitination are currently under investigation. ItemRole of Virally-Encoded Deubiquitinating Enzymes in Regulation of the Virus Life Cycle(MDPI, 2021-04-23) Proulx, Jessica; Borgmann, Kathleen; Park, InWooThe ubiquitin (Ub) proteasome system (UPS) plays a pivotal role in regulation of numerous cellular processes, including innate and adaptive immune responses that are essential for restriction of the virus life cycle in the infected cells. Deubiquitination by the deubiquitinating enzyme, deubiquitinase (DUB), is a reversible molecular process to remove Ub or Ub chains from the target proteins. Deubiquitination is an integral strategy within the UPS in regulating survival and proliferation of the infecting virus and the virus-invaded cells. Many viruses in the infected cells are reported to encode viral DUB, and these vial DUBs actively disrupt cellular Ub-dependent processes to suppress host antiviral immune response, enhancing virus replication and thus proliferation. This review surveys the types of DUBs encoded by different viruses and their molecular processes for how the infecting viruses take advantage of the DUB system to evade the host immune response and expedite their replication. ItemMethamphetamine Activates Trace Amine Associated Receptor 1 to Regulate Astrocyte Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter-2 via Differential CREB Phosphorylation During HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders(Frontiers Media S.A., 2020-11-25) Cisneros, Irma E.; Ghorpade, Anuja; Borgmann, KathleenMethamphetamine (METH) use, referred to as methamphetamine use disorder (MUD), results in neurocognitive decline, a characteristic shared with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). MUD exacerbates HAND partly through glutamate dysregulation. Astrocyte excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT)-2 is responsible for >90% of glutamate uptake from the synaptic environment and is significantly decreased with METH and HIV-1. Our previous work demonstrated astrocyte trace amine associated receptor (TAAR) 1 to be involved in EAAT-2 regulation. Astrocyte EAAT-2 is regulated at the transcriptional level by cAMP responsive element binding (CREB) protein and NF-kappaB, transcription factors activated by cAMP, calcium and IL-1beta. Second messengers, cAMP and calcium, are triggered by TAAR1 activation, which is upregulated by IL-1beta METH-mediated increases in these second messengers and signal transduction pathways have not been shown to directly decrease astrocyte EAAT-2. We propose CREB activation serves as a master regulator of EAAT-2 transcription, downstream of METH-induced TAAR1 activation. To investigate the temporal order of events culminating in CREB activation, genetically encoded calcium indicators, GCaMP6s, were used to visualize METH-induced calcium signaling in primary human astrocytes. RNA interference and pharmacological inhibitors targeting or blocking cAMP-dependent protein kinase A and calcium/calmodulin kinase II confirmed METH-induced regulation of EAAT-2 and resultant glutamate clearance. Furthermore, we investigated METH-mediated CREB phosphorylation at both serine 133 and 142, the co-activator and co-repressor forms, respectively. Overall, this work revealed METH-induced differential CREB phosphorylation is a critical regulator for EAAT-2 function and may thus serve as a mechanistic target for the attenuation of METH-induced excitotoxicity in the context of HAND. ItemCal'MAM'ity at the Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Interface: A Potential Therapeutic Target for Neurodegeneration and Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders(Frontiers Media S.A., 2021-10-21) Proulx, Jessica; Park, InWoo; Borgmann, KathleenThe endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a multifunctional organelle and serves as the primary site for intracellular calcium storage, lipid biogenesis, protein synthesis, and quality control. Mitochondria are responsible for producing the majority of cellular energy required for cell survival and function and are integral for many metabolic and signaling processes. Mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAMs) are direct contact sites between the ER and mitochondria that serve as platforms to coordinate fundamental cellular processes such as mitochondrial dynamics and bioenergetics, calcium and lipid homeostasis, autophagy, apoptosis, inflammation, and intracellular stress responses. Given the importance of MAM-mediated mechanisms in regulating cellular fate and function, MAMs are now known as key molecular and cellular hubs underlying disease pathology. Notably, neurons are uniquely susceptible to mitochondrial dysfunction and intracellular stress, which highlights the importance of MAMs as potential targets to manipulate MAM-associated mechanisms. However, whether altered MAM communication and connectivity are causative agents or compensatory mechanisms in disease development and progression remains elusive. Regardless, exploration is warranted to determine if MAMs are therapeutically targetable to combat neurodegeneration. Here, we review key MAM interactions and proteins both in vitro and in vivo models of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We further discuss implications of MAMs in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), as MAMs have not yet been explored in this neuropathology. These perspectives specifically focus on mitochondrial dysfunction, calcium dysregulation and ER stress as notable MAM-mediated mechanisms underlying HAND pathology. Finally, we discuss potential targets to manipulate MAM function as a therapeutic intervention against neurodegeneration. Future investigations are warranted to better understand the interplay and therapeutic application of MAMs in glial dysfunction and neurotoxicity. ItemHIV-1-Mediated Acceleration of Oncovirus-Related Non-AIDS-Defining Cancers(MDPI, 2022-03-25) Proulx, Jessica; Ghaly, Maria; Park, InWoo; Borgmann, KathleenWith the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), overall survival has been improved, and the incidence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining cancers has also been remarkably reduced. However, non-AIDS-defining cancers among human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1)-associated malignancies have increased significantly so that cancer is the leading cause of death in people living with HIV in certain highly developed countries, such as France. However, it is currently unknown how HIV-1 infection raises oncogenic virus-mediated cancer risks in the HIV-1 and oncogenic virus co-infected patients, and thus elucidation of the molecular mechanisms for how HIV-1 expedites the oncogenic viruses-triggered tumorigenesis in the co-infected hosts is imperative for developing therapeutics to cure or impede the carcinogenesis. Hence, this review is focused on HIV-1 and oncogenic virus co-infection-mediated molecular processes in the acceleration of non-AIDS-defining cancers. ItemA novel ligand on astrocytes interacts with natural cytotoxicity receptor NKp44 regulating immune response mediated by NK cells(PLOS, 2018-02-15) Bowen, Kelly E.; Mathew, Stephen O.; Borgmann, Kathleen; Ghorpade, Anuja; Mathew, Porunelloor A.NK cells play important role in immunity against pathogens and cancer. NK cell functions are regulated by inhibitory and activating receptors binding corresponding ligands on the surface of target cells. NK cells were shown to be recruited to the CNS following several pathological conditions. NK cells could impact CNS physiology by killing glial cells and by secreting IFN-gamma. Astrocytes are intimately involved in immunological and inflammatory events occurring in the CNS and reactive astrogliosis is a key feature in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. There is little data on NK-astrocyte interactions and ligands expressed on astrocytes that could impact NK cell function. Natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs) play a critical role in the cytolytic function of NK cells. Among the NCRs, NKp44 is unique in expression and signal transduction. NKp44 is expressed only upon activation of NK cells and it can mediate both activating and inhibitory signals to NK cells. Here, we have studied the expression and function of natural cytotoxicity receptor NKp44 upon NK-astrocytes interactions in the presence or absence of an HIV peptide (HIV-3S peptide) shown to induce NK cell killing of CD4+ T cells during HIV-infection. Using a fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of NKp44 fused to Fc portion of human IgG, we determined the expression of a novel ligand for NKp44 (NKp44L) on astrocytes. Incubation of astrocytes with HIV-3S peptide downregulated NKp44L expression on astrocytes implicating protection from NK mediated killing. Thus, our study showed that NKp44 have a protective effect on astrocytes from NK cell mediated killing during HIV infection and impact astrocyte role in HAND. ItemActivated human astrocyte-derived extracellular vesicles modulate neuronal uptake, differentiation and firing(Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group, 2019-12-26) You, Yang; Borgmann, Kathleen; Edara, Venkata Viswanadh; Stacy, Satomi; Ghorpade, Anuja; Ikezu, TsuneyaAstrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) provide supportive neural functions and mediate inflammatory responses from microglia. Increasing evidence supports their critical roles in regulating brain homoeostasis in response to pro-inflammatory factors such as cytokines and pathogen/damage-associated molecular pattern molecules in infectious and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms of the trans-cellular communication are still unclear. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) can transfer a large diversity of molecules such as lipids, nucleic acids and proteins for cellular communications. The purpose of this study is to characterize the EVs cargo proteins derived from human primary astrocytes (ADEVs) under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. ADEVs were isolated from human primary astrocytes after vehicle (CTL) or interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) pre-treatment. Label-free quantitative proteomic profiling revealed a notable up-regulation of proteins including actin-associated molecules, integrins and major histocompatibility complex in IL-1beta-ADEVs compared to CTL-ADEVs, which were involved in cellular metabolism and organization, cellular communication and inflammatory response. When fluorescently labelled ADEVs were added into primary cultured mouse cortical neurons, we found a significantly increased neuronal uptake of IL-1beta-ADEVs compared to CTL-ADEVs. We further confirmed it is likely due to the enrichment of surface proteins in IL-1beta-ADEVs, as IL-1beta-ADEVs uptake by neurons was partially suppressed by a specific integrin inhibitor. Additionally, treatment of neurons with IL-1beta-ADEVs also reduced neurite outgrowth, branching and neuronal firing. These findings provide insight for the molecular mechanism of the ADEVs' effects on neural uptake, neural differentiation and maturation, and its alteration in inflammatory conditions. Itemβ-Catenin Regulates Wound Healing and IL-6 Expression in Activated Human Astrocytes(MDPI, 2020-11-06) Edara, Venkata Viswanadh; Nooka, Shruthi; Proulx, Jessica; Stacy, Satomi; Ghorpade, Anuja; Borgmann, KathleenReactive astrogliosis is prominent in most neurodegenerative disorders and is often associated with neuroinflammation. The molecular mechanisms regulating astrocyte-linked neuropathogenesis during injury, aging and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the implications of the wingless type (Wnt)/beta-catenin signaling pathway in regulating astrocyte function during gliosis. First, we identified that HIV-associated inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1beta and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha induced mediators of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway including beta-catenin and lymphoid enhancer-binding factor (LEF)-1 expression in astrocytes. Next, we investigated the regulatory role of beta-catenin on primary aspects of reactive astrogliosis, including proliferation, migration and proinflammatory responses, such as IL-6. Knockdown of beta-catenin impaired astrocyte proliferation and migration as shown by reduced cyclin-D1 levels, bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and wound healing. HIV-associated cytokines, IL-1beta alone and in combination with TNF-alpha, strongly induced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines including C-C motif chemokine ligand (CCL)2, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand (CXCL)8 and IL-6; however, only IL-6 levels were regulated by beta-catenin as demonstrated by knockdown and pharmacological stabilization. In this context, IL-6 levels were negatively regulated by beta-catenin. To better understand this relationship, we examined the crossroads between beta-catenin and nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB pathways. While NF-kappaB expression was significantly increased by IL-1beta and TNF-alpha, NF-kappaB levels were not affected by beta-catenin knockdown. IL-1beta treatment significantly increased glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3beta phosphorylation, which inhibits beta-catenin degradation. Further, pharmacological inhibition of GSK-3beta increased nuclear translocation of both beta-catenin and NF-kappaB p65 into the nucleus in the absence of any other inflammatory stimuli. HIV+ human astrocytes show increased IL-6, beta-catenin and NF-kappaB expression levels and are interconnected by regulatory associations during HAND. In summary, our study demonstrates that HIV-associated inflammation increases beta-catenin pathway mediators to augment activated astrocyte responses including migration and proliferation, while mitigating IL-6 expression. These findings suggest that beta-catenin plays an anti-inflammatory role in activated human astrocytes during neuroinflammatory pathologies, such as HAND. ItemAstrocyte HIV-1 Tat Differentially Modulates Behavior and Brain MMP/TIMP Balance During Short and Prolonged Induction in Transgenic Mice(Frontiers Media S.A., 2020-12-15) Joshi, Chaitanya R.; Stacy, Satomi; Sumien, Nathalie; Ghorpade, Anuja; Borgmann, KathleenDespite effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), mild forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) continue to afflict approximately half of all people living with HIV (PLWH). As PLWH age, HIV-associated inflammation perturbs the balance between brain matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), likely contributing to neuropathogenesis. The MMP/TIMP balance is associated with cognition, learning, and memory, with TIMPs eliciting neuroprotective effects. Dysregulation of the MMP/TIMP balance was evident in the brains of PLWH where levels of TIMP-1, the inducible family member, were significantly lower than non-infected controls, and MMPs were elevated. Here, we evaluated the MMP/TIMP levels in the doxycycline (DOX)-induced glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter-driven HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat) transgenic mouse model. The HIV-1 protein Tat is constitutively expressed by most infected cells, even during ART suppression of viral replication. Many studies have demonstrated indirect and direct mechanisms of short-term Tat-associated neurodegeneration, including gliosis, blood-brain barrier disruption, elevated inflammatory mediators and neurotoxicity. However, the effects of acute vs. prolonged exposure on Tat-induced dysregulation remain to be seen. This is especially relevant for TIMP-1 as expression was previously shown to be differentially regulated in human astrocytes during acute vs. chronic inflammation. In this context, acute Tat expression was induced with DOX intraperitoneal injections over 3 weeks, while DOX-containing diet was used to achieve long-term Tat expression over 6 months. First, a series of behavior tests evaluating arousal, ambulation, anxiety, and cognition was performed to examine impairments analogous to those observed in HAND. Next, gene expression of components of the MMP/TIMP axis and known HAND-relevant inflammatory mediators were assessed. Altered anxiety-like, motor and/or cognitive behaviors were observed in Tat-induced (iTat) mice. Gene expression of MMPs and TIMPs was altered depending on the duration of Tat expression, which was independent of the HIV-associated neuroinflammation typically implicated in MMP/TIMP regulation. Collectively, we infer that HIV-1 Tat-mediated dysregulation of MMP/TIMP axis and behavioral changes are dependent on duration of exposure. Further, prolonged Tat expression demonstrates a phenotype comparable to asymptomatic to mild HAND manifestation in patients.