Publications -- Eun-Young Mun

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This collection is limited to articles published under the terms of a creative commons license or other open access publishing agreement since 2016. It is not intended as a complete list of the author's works.


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    A Tutorial on Cognitive Diagnosis Modeling for Characterizing Mental Health Symptom Profiles Using Existing Item Responses
    (Springer Nature, 2022-02-04) Tan, Zhengqi; de la Torre, Jimmy; Ma, Wenchao; Huh, David; Larimer, Mary E.; Mun, Eun-Young
    In research applications, mental health problems such as alcohol-related problems and depression are commonly assessed and evaluated using scale scores or latent trait scores derived from factor analysis or item response theory models. This tutorial paper demonstrates the use of cognitive diagnosis models (CDMs) as an alternative approach to characterizing mental health problems of young adults when item-level data are available. Existing measurement approaches focus on estimating the general severity of a given mental health problem at the scale level as a unidimensional construct without accounting for other symptoms of related mental health problems. The prevailing approaches may ignore clinically meaningful presentations of related symptoms at the item level. The current study illustrates CDMs using item-level data from college students (40 items from 719 respondents; 34.6% men, 83.9% White, and 16.3% first-year students). Specifically, we evaluated the constellation of four postulated domains (i.e., alcohol-related problems, anxiety, hostility, and depression) as a set of attribute profiles using CDMs. After accounting for the impact of each attribute (i.e., postulated domain) on the estimates of attribute profiles, the results demonstrated that when items or attributes have limited information, CDMs can utilize item-level information in the associated attributes to generate potentially meaningful estimates and profiles, compared to analyzing each attribute independently. We introduce a novel visual inspection aid, the lens plot, for quantifying this gain. CDMs may be a useful analytical tool to capture respondents' risk and resilience for prevention research.
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    Does abstaining from alcohol in high school moderate intervention effects for college students? Implications for tiered intervention strategies
    (Frontiers Media S.A., 2022-12-20) Tan, Lin; Friedman, Zachary; Zhou, Zhengyang; Huh, David; White, Helene R.; Mun, Eun-Young
    Brief motivational intervention (BMI) and personalized feedback intervention (PFI) are individual-focused brief alcohol intervention approaches that have been proven efficacious for reducing alcohol use among college students and young adults. Although the efficacy of these two intervention approaches has been well established, little is known about the factors that may modify their effects on alcohol outcomes. In particular, high school drinking may be a risk factor for continued and heightened use of alcohol in college, and thus may influence the outcomes of BMI and PFI. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether high school drinking was associated with different intervention outcomes among students who received PFI compared to those who received BMI. We conducted moderation analyses examining 348 mandated students (60.1% male; 73.3% White; and 61.5% first-year student) who were randomly assigned to either a BMI or a PFI and whose alcohol consumption was assessed at 4-month and 15-month follow-ups. Results from marginalized zero-inflated Poisson models showed that high school drinking moderated the effects of PFI and BMI at the 4-month follow-up but not at the 15-month follow-up. Specifically, students who reported no drinking in their senior year of high school consumed a 49% higher mean number of drinks after receiving BMI than PFI at the 4-month follow-up. The results suggest that alcohol consumption in high school may be informative when screening and allocating students to appropriate alcohol interventions to meet their different needs.
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    Using machine learning to identify predictors of imminent drinking and create tailored messages for at-risk drinkers experiencing homelessness
    (Elsevier Inc., 2021-04-20) Walters, Scott T.; Businelle, Michael S.; Suchting, Robert; Li, Xiaoyin; Hebert, Emily T.; Mun, Eun-Young
    Adults experiencing homelessness are more likely to have an alcohol use disorder compared to adults in the general population. Although shelter-based treatments are common, completion rates tend to be poor, suggesting a need for more effective approaches that are tailored to this understudied and underserved population. One barrier to developing more effective treatments is the limited knowledge of the triggers of alcohol use among homeless adults. This paper describes the use of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to identify predictors of "imminent drinking" (i.e., drinking within the next 4 h), among a sample of adults experiencing homelessness and receiving health services at a homeless shelter. A total of 78 mostly male (84.6%) adults experiencing homelessness (mean age = 46.6) who reported hazardous drinking completed up to five EMAs per day over 4 weeks (a total of 4557 completed EMAs). The study used machine learning techniques to create a drinking risk algorithm that predicted 82% of imminent drinking episodes within 4 h of the first drink of the day, and correctly identified 76% of nondrinking episodes. The algorithm included the following 7 predictors of imminent drinking: urge to drink, having alcohol easily available, feeling confident that alcohol would improve mood, feeling depressed, lower commitment to being alcohol free, not interacting with someone drinking alcohol, and being indoors. The research team used the results to develop intervention content (e.g., brief tailored messages) that will be delivered when imminent drinking is detected in an upcoming intervention phase. Specifically, we created three theoretically grounded message tracks focused on urge/craving, social/availability, and negative affect/mood, which are further tailored to a participant's current drinking goal (i.e., stay sober, drink less, no goal) to support positive change. To our knowledge, this is the first study to develop tailored intervention messages based on likelihood of imminent drinking, current drinking triggers, and drinking goals among adults experiencing homelessness.
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    A Structural Equation Modeling Approach to Meta-analytic Mediation Analysis Using Individual Participant Data: Testing Protective Behavioral Strategies as a Mediator of Brief Motivational Intervention Effects on Alcohol-Related Problems
    (Springer Nature, 2021-11-12) Huh, David; Li, Xiaoyin; Zhou, Zhengyang; Walters, Scott T.; Baldwin, Scott A.; Tan, Zhengqi; Larimer, Mary E.; Mun, Eun-Young
    This paper introduces a meta-analytic mediation analysis approach for individual participant data (IPD) from multiple studies. Mediation analysis evaluates whether the effectiveness of an intervention on health outcomes occurs because of change in a key behavior targeted by the intervention. However, individual trials are often statistically underpowered to test mediation hypotheses. Existing approaches for evaluating mediation in the meta-analytic context are limited by their reliance on aggregate data; thus, findings may be confounded with study-level differences unrelated to the pathway of interest. To overcome the limitations of existing meta-analytic mediation approaches, we used a one-stage estimation approach using structural equation modeling (SEM) to combine IPD from multiple studies for mediation analysis. This approach (1) accounts for the clustering of participants within studies, (2) accommodates missing data via multiple imputation, and (3) allows valid inferences about the indirect (i.e., mediated) effects via bootstrapped confidence intervals. We used data (N = 3691 from 10 studies) from Project INTEGRATE (Mun et al. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 29, 34-48, 2015) to illustrate the SEM approach to meta-analytic mediation analysis by testing whether improvements in the use of protective behavioral strategies mediate the effectiveness of brief motivational interventions for alcohol-related problems among college students. To facilitate the application of the methodology, we provide annotated computer code in R and data for replication. At a substantive level, stand-alone personalized feedback interventions reduced alcohol-related problems via greater use of protective behavioral strategies; however, the net-mediated effect across strategies was small in size, on average.
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    Increases in social support co-occur with decreases in depressive symptoms and substance use problems among adults in permanent supportive housing: an 18-month longitudinal study
    (BioMed Central Ltd., 2021-01-06) Tan, Zhengqi; Mun, Eun-Young; Nguyen, Uyen-Sa D.T.; Walters, Scott T.
    BACKGROUND: Social support is a well-known protective factor against depressive symptoms and substance use problems, but very few studies have examined its protective effects among residents of permanent supportive housing (PSH), a housing program for people with a history of chronic homelessness. We utilized unconditional latent growth curve models (LGCMs) and parallel process growth models to describe univariate trajectories of social support, depressive symptoms, and substance use problems and to examine their longitudinal associations in a large sample of adults residing in PSH. METHODS: Participants were 653 adult PSH residents in North Texas (56% female; 57% Black; mean age: 51 years) who participated in a monthly health coaching program from 2014 to 2017. Their health behaviors were assessed at baseline and tracked every six months at three follow-up visits. RESULTS: Unconditional LGCMs indicated that over time, social support increased, whereas depressive symptoms and substance use problems decreased. However, their rates of change slowed over time. Further, in parallel process growth models, we found that at baseline, individuals with greater social support tended to have less severe depressive symptoms and substance use problems (coefficients: - 0.67, p < 0.01; - 0.52, p < 0.01, respectively). Individuals with a faster increase in social support tended to have steeper rates of reduction in both depressive symptoms (coefficient: - 0.99, p < 0.01) and substance use problems (coefficient: - 0.98, p < 0.01), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that plausibly, increases in social support, though slowing over time, still positively impact depressive symptoms and substance use problems among PSH residents. Future PSH programs could emphasize social support as an early component as it may contribute to clients' overall health.
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    An epidemic model for non-first-order transmission kinetics
    (PLOS, 2021-03-11) Mun, Eun-Young; Geng, Feng
    Compartmental models in epidemiology characterize the spread of an infectious disease by formulating ordinary differential equations to quantify the rate of disease progression through subpopulations defined by the Susceptible-Infectious-Removed (SIR) scheme. The classic rate law central to the SIR compartmental models assumes that the rate of transmission is first order regarding the infectious agent. The current study demonstrates that this assumption does not always hold and provides a theoretical rationale for a more general rate law, inspired by mixed-order chemical reaction kinetics, leading to a modified mathematical model for non-first-order kinetics. Using observed data from 127 countries during the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, we demonstrated that the modified epidemic model is more realistic than the classic, first-order-kinetics based model. We discuss two coefficients associated with the modified epidemic model: transmission rate constant k and transmission reaction order n. While k finds utility in evaluating the effectiveness of control measures due to its responsiveness to external factors, n is more closely related to the intrinsic properties of the epidemic agent, including reproductive ability. The rate law for the modified compartmental SIR model is generally applicable to mixed-kinetics disease transmission with heterogeneous transmission mechanisms. By analyzing early-stage epidemic data, this modified epidemic model may be instrumental in providing timely insight into a new epidemic and developing control measures at the beginning of an outbreak.
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    Do Brief Alcohol Interventions Reduce Driving After Drinking Among College Students? A Two-step Meta-analysis of Individual Participant Data
    (Oxford University Press, 2021-02-16) Mun, Eun-Young; Li, Xiaoyin; Lineberry, Shelby; Tan, Zhengqi; Huh, David; Walters, Scott T.; Zhou, Zhengyang; Larimer, Mary E.; in Collaboration with Project, Integrate Team
    AIMS: College students who drink are at an increased risk of driving after drinking and alcohol-involved traffic accidents and deaths. Furthermore, the persistence of driving after drinking over time underscores a need for effective interventions to prevent future drunk driving in adulthood. The present study examined whether brief alcohol interventions (BAIs) for college students reduce driving after drinking. METHODS: A two-step meta-analysis of individual participant data (IPD) was conducted using a combined sample of 6801 college students from 15 randomized controlled trials (38% male, 72% White and 58% first-year students). BAIs included individually delivered Motivational Interviewing with Personalized Feedback (MI + PF), Group Motivational Interviewing (GMI), and stand-alone Personalized Feedback (PF) interventions. Two outcome variables, driving after two+/three+ drinks and driving after four+/five+ drinks, were checked, harmonized and analyzed separately for each study and then combined for meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis. RESULTS: BAIs lowered the risk of driving after four+/five+ drinks (19% difference in the odds of driving after drinking favoring BAIs vs. control), but not the risk of driving after two+/three+ drinks (9% difference). Subsequent subgroup analysis indicated that the MI + PF intervention was comparatively better than PF or GMI. CONCLUSIONS: BAIs provide a harm reduction approach to college drinking. Hence, it is encouraging that BAIs reduce the risk of driving after heavy drinking among college students. However, there may be opportunities to enhance the intervention content and timing to be more relevant for driving after drinking and improve the outcome assessment and reporting to demonstrate its effect.
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    Ecological Momentary Assessment of Alcohol Consumption and Its Concordance with Transdermal Alcohol Detection and Timeline Follow-Back Self-report Among Adults Experiencing Homelessness
    (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2021-03-03) Mun, Eun-Young; Li, Xiaoyin; Businelle, Michael S.; Hebert, Emily T.; Tan, Zhengqi; Barnett, Nancy P.; Walters, Scott T.
    BACKGROUND: Studies of alcohol use presume valid assessment measures. To evaluate this presumption, we examined the concordance of alcohol use as measured by ecological momentary assessment (EMA) self-reports, transdermal alcohol concentration readings via the Secure Continuous Remote Alcohol Monitor (SCRAM), and retrospective self-reports via the Timeline Follow-Back (TLFB) among adults experiencing homelessness. METHODS: Forty-nine adults who reported alcohol misuse (mean age = 47, SD = 9; 57% Black; 82% men) were recruited from a homeless shelter. For 4 weeks, alcohol use was assessed: (i) 5 times or more per day by EMA, (ii) every 30 minutes by a SCRAM device worn on the ankle, and (iii) by TLFB for the past month at the end of the study period. There were 1,389 days of observations of alcohol use and alcohol use intensity for 49 participants. RESULTS: EMA and SCRAM alcohol use data agreed on 73% of days, with an interrater agreement Kappa = 0.46. A multilevel analysis of concordance of 3 measures for alcohol use yielded statistically significant correlations of 0.40 (day level) and 0.63 (person level) between EMA and SCRAM. Alcohol use was detected on 49, 38, and 33% of days by EMA, SCRAM, and TLFB, respectively. For alcohol use intensity, EMA and SCRAM resulted in statistically significant correlations of 0.46 (day level) and 0.78 (person level). The concordance of TLFB with either EMA or SCRAM was weak, especially at the day level. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to examine concordance of alcohol use estimates using EMA, SCRAM, and TLFB methods in adults experiencing homelessness. EMA is a valid approach to quantifying alcohol use, especially given its relatively low cost, low participant burden, and ease of use. Furthermore, any stigma associated with wearing the SCRAM or reporting alcohol use in person may be attenuated by using EMA, which may be appealing for use in studies of stigmatized and underserved populations.
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    A bias correction method in meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials with no adjustments for zero-inflated outcomes
    (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2021-09-03) Zhou, Zhengyang; Xie, Minge; Huh, David; Mun, Eun-Young
    Many clinical endpoint measures, such as the number of standard drinks consumed per week or the number of days that patients stayed in the hospital, are count data with excessive zeros. However, the zero-inflated nature of such outcomes is sometimes ignored in analyses of clinical trials. This leads to biased estimates of study-level intervention effect and, consequently, a biased estimate of the overall intervention effect in a meta-analysis. The current study proposes a novel statistical approach, the Zero-inflation Bias Correction (ZIBC) method, that can account for the bias introduced when using the Poisson regression model, despite a high rate of inflated zeros in the outcome distribution of a randomized clinical trial. This correction method only requires summary information from individual studies to correct intervention effect estimates as if they were appropriately estimated using the zero-inflated Poisson regression model, thus it is attractive for meta-analysis when individual participant-level data are not available in some studies. Simulation studies and real data analyses showed that the ZIBC method performed well in correcting zero-inflation bias in most situations.
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    A cross-sectional study of latent tuberculosis infection, insurance coverage, and usual sources of health care among non-US-born persons in the United States
    (Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc., 2021-02-19) Annan, Esther; Stockbridge, Erica L.; Katz, Dolly; Mun, Eun-Young; Miller, Thaddeus L.
    ABSTRACT: More than 70% of tuberculosis (TB) cases diagnosed in the United States (US) occur in non-US-born persons, and this population has experienced less than half the recent incidence rate declines of US-born persons (1.5% vs 4.2%, respectively). The great majority of TB cases in non-US-born persons are attributable to reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Strategies to expand LTBI-focused TB prevention may depend on LTBI positive non-US-born persons' access to, and ability to pay for, health care.To examine patterns of health insurance coverage and usual sources of health care among non-US-born persons with LTBI, and to estimate LTBI prevalence by insurance status and usual sources of health care.Self-reported health insurance and usual sources of care for non-US-born persons were analyzed in combination with markers for LTBI using 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data for 1793 sampled persons. A positive result on an interferon gamma release assay (IGRA), a blood test which measures immunological reactivity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, was used as a proxy for LTBI. We calculated demographic category percentages by IGRA status, IGRA percentages by demographic category, and 95% confidence intervals for each percentage.Overall, 15.9% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 13.5, 18.7] of non-US-born persons were IGRA-positive. Of IGRA-positive non-US-born persons, 63.0% (95% CI = 55.4, 69.9) had insurance and 74.1% (95% CI = 69.2, 78.5) had a usual source of care. IGRA positivity was highest in persons with Medicare (29.1%; 95% CI: 20.9, 38.9).Our results suggest that targeted LTBI testing and treatment within the US private healthcare sector could reach a large majority of non-US-born individuals with LTBI. With non-US-born Medicare beneficiaries' high prevalence of LTBI and the high proportion of LTBI-positive non-US-born persons with private insurance, future TB prevention initiatives focused on these payer types are warranted.