Methamphetamine Activates Trace Amine Associated Receptor 1 to Regulate Astrocyte Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter-2 via Differential CREB Phosphorylation During HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders
Cisneros, Irma E.
0000-0003-0897-390X (Borgmann, Kathleen)
0000-0002-8965-0979 (Cisneros, Irma)
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Methamphetamine (METH) use, referred to as methamphetamine use disorder (MUD), results in neurocognitive decline, a characteristic shared with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). MUD exacerbates HAND partly through glutamate dysregulation. Astrocyte excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT)-2 is responsible for >90% of glutamate uptake from the synaptic environment and is significantly decreased with METH and HIV-1. Our previous work demonstrated astrocyte trace amine associated receptor (TAAR) 1 to be involved in EAAT-2 regulation. Astrocyte EAAT-2 is regulated at the transcriptional level by cAMP responsive element binding (CREB) protein and NF-kappaB, transcription factors activated by cAMP, calcium and IL-1beta. Second messengers, cAMP and calcium, are triggered by TAAR1 activation, which is upregulated by IL-1beta METH-mediated increases in these second messengers and signal transduction pathways have not been shown to directly decrease astrocyte EAAT-2. We propose CREB activation serves as a master regulator of EAAT-2 transcription, downstream of METH-induced TAAR1 activation. To investigate the temporal order of events culminating in CREB activation, genetically encoded calcium indicators, GCaMP6s, were used to visualize METH-induced calcium signaling in primary human astrocytes. RNA interference and pharmacological inhibitors targeting or blocking cAMP-dependent protein kinase A and calcium/calmodulin kinase II confirmed METH-induced regulation of EAAT-2 and resultant glutamate clearance. Furthermore, we investigated METH-mediated CREB phosphorylation at both serine 133 and 142, the co-activator and co-repressor forms, respectively. Overall, this work revealed METH-induced differential CREB phosphorylation is a critical regulator for EAAT-2 function and may thus serve as a mechanistic target for the attenuation of METH-induced excitotoxicity in the context of HAND.