Epidemiologic Assessment of a Targeted Tuberulosis Screening and Treatment Program Based on Geographic and Molecular Clustering




Moonan, Patrick Kevin


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Moonan, Patrick K., Epidemiologic Assessment of a Targeted Tuberculosis Screening and Treatment Program Based on Geographic and Molecular Clustering. Doctor of Public Health (Disease Prevention and Control), August 2005, 93 pp., 12 tables, 7 illustrations, bibliography, 148 tables. One of the primary goals of the tuberculosis elimination strategy is to interrupt the transmission of mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB). The most effective way to accomplish this goal is to identify and treat individuals who have active tuberculosis. However, even in highly effected tuberculosis control programs, M. tuberculosis continues to be transmitted to others, largely because most transmission occurs before diagnosis and initiation of therapy. Under the current recommendations, testing should be targeted at specific high-risk populations. While a strategy of targeted testing and treatment of persons most likely to develop tuberculosis is attractive, it is uncertain how best to accomplish this goal. This is the first study to assess the use of geographic and molecular surveillance in guiding a targeted tuberculosis screening and treatment of active tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis infection that monitors potential transmission in a defined high risk geographic area. The results of this geographically targeted program demonstrate significant yield for discovering active cases, latent tuberculosis infection, and recent transmission (TST converters). In this setting, geographically targeted screening identified as many as 19.8 tuberculosis cases per 1,000 persons screened and as many as 292.4 latent tuberculosis infections per 1,000 persons screened. Additionally, successful treatment of these individuals reduced the number of both cases and latent infection identified. Over a three-year period the case detection rate, latent infection detection rate, and TST conversion rate was reduced by 335%, 171% and 285% respectively.