Cadmium-Induced Kidney Injury: Oxidative Damage as a Unifying Mechanism

Date

2021-10-23

Authors

Yan, Liang-Jun
Allen, Daniel C.

ORCID

0000-0002-5815-5430 (Liang-Jun Yan)

Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title

Publisher

MDPI

Abstract

Cadmium is a nonessential metal that has heavily polluted the environment due to human activities. It can be absorbed into the human body via the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, and the skin, and can cause chronic damage to the kidneys. The main site where cadmium accumulates and causes damage within the nephrons is the proximal tubule. This accumulation can induce dysfunction of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, leading to electron leakage and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cadmium may also impair the function of NADPH oxidase, resulting in another source of ROS. These ROS together can cause oxidative damage to DNA, proteins, and lipids, triggering epithelial cell death and a decline in kidney function. In this article, we also reviewed evidence that the antioxidant power of plant extracts, herbal medicines, and pharmacological agents could ameliorate cadmium-induced kidney injury. Finally, a model of cadmium-induced kidney injury, centering on the notion that oxidative damage is a unifying mechanism of cadmium renal toxicity, is also presented. Given that cadmium exposure is inevitable, further studies using animal models are warranted for a detailed understanding of the mechanism underlying cadmium induced ROS production, and for the identification of more therapeutic targets.

Description

Citation

Yan, L. J., & Allen, D. C. (2021). Cadmium-Induced Kidney Injury: Oxidative Damage as a Unifying Mechanism. Biomolecules, 11(11), 1575. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11111575

Rights

Copyright © 2021 by the authors.

License

Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)