Identifying Personality Traits Associated with Entrepreneurial and Intrapreneurial Intentions among Student Pharmacists




Nili, Mona
Madhavan, Sundareswaran
Shaikh, Nazneen
Dwibedi, Nilanjana
Anyanwu, Precious
Kavookjian, Jan
Nadpara, Pramit
Chen, Aleda
Kamal, Khalid


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Purpose: Determining personality traits in student pharmacists that are associated with future entrepreneurial or intrapreneurial intentions may help to identify and develop patient-care oriented pharmacists to succeed in a profession that increasingly needs risk takers and innovators for its future success. The objective of this study was to identify the personality traits and characteristics of student pharmacists that are associated with future Entrepreneurial intention (EI) and/or Intrapreneurial intention (II). Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using the Entrepreneurial and Intrapreneurial Pharmacist Questionnaire (EIPQ) with a convenience sample of second (P2) and third (P3) year student pharmacists from six US private and public pharmacy schools. Personality traits measured included locus of control, innovativeness, autonomy, risk-taking propensity, proactiveness, achievement-motivation, people liking, problem-solving, and leadership. Results: A majority of the sample were female, white, and between 18 and 25 years of age. The mean scores of EI and II were 3.23 and 4.22, respectively, on a scale of 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree). Regression models adjusted for socio-economic characteristics showed a significant association between EI and innovativeness, autonomy, proactiveness, being male, and having a family business background. II was positively associated with risk-taking propensity, proactiveness, problem-solving and being white, and negatively associated with having a family business background. Conclusions: The study indicates that student pharmacists have neutral to mild EI and II. However, EI and II were significantly associated with selected personality traits typically associated with entrepreneurs or intrapreneurs.