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    Postpartum Depression: A Psychosocial and Health Literacy Perspective
    (2020) Saravia, Daniel; Wagner, Teresa; Aggarwal, Amit
    Postpartum Depression (PPD) is a major contributor to maternal morbidity in the United States (Robertson, Grace, Wallington, & Stewart, 2004). One in nine mothers is diagnosed with PPD (Ko, Rockhill, Tong, Marrow, & Farr, 2017). Specifically, a 2011 Texas state report estimated that 10.2% of mothers reported PPD symptoms. Additionally, PPD symptoms were more prevalent among Black mothers (11.9%) than White mothers (9.4%) (TXDSHS, 2011). Lastly, extensive research shows that low-income and ethnic minorities are less likely to seek professional assistance than White individuals (Kurtx, 2005; Song, Sands, & Wong, 2004). Mothers often do not recognize the abnormal emotions during the postpartum period, which signal PPD (Abrams, Dornig, & Curran 2009). Limited mental health literacy (MHL) hinders mental health (MH) service utilization and recognition of PPD symptoms. Research illustrates that mothers with PPD lacked knowledge about PPD, MH services available or how to access services. (Abrams et al., 2009; Holopanien, 2002). The current study aimed to determine whether mothers received appropriate PPD instruction by examining data collected from one-on-one interviews with a diverse sample of mothers residing in north Texas. 21 new mothers were interviewed as part of a pilot study on postpartum health literacy. Interviews were transcribed and coded conducting applied thematic analysis using the Integrated Model of Health Literacy. 33% of participants indicated a lack of PPD education provided at discharge. Results illustrate the need for providers to give more comprehensive postpartum instruction on PPD to facilitate diagnosis, understanding, and obtaining PPD MH services.
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    Which Personality Traits Among Student Pharmacists are Associated with Interest in Becoming a Pharmacist Provider?
    (2020) Nili, Mona; Shaikh, Nazneen; Dwibedi, Nilanjana; Anyanwu, Precious; Kavookjian, Jan; Nadpara, Pramit; Chen, Aleda; Kamal, Khalid; Madhavan, Sundareswaran
    Purpose: Provider status for pharmacists is of growing interest in the profession. However, it is not clear which personality traits are associated with interest in becoming a pharmacist provider (IBPP) among student pharmacists. The main objective of this study is to identify which entrepreneurial personality traits are associated with IBPP among student pharmacists in the United States. Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted in second (P2) and third (P3) year student pharmacists in a convenience sample of six private and public pharmacy schools in the United States. All the personality traits (i.e. locus of control, innovativeness, autonomy, risk-taking propensity, pro-activeness, achievement motivation, people liking, problem solving, and leadership self-efficacy) were measured using previously validated scales. Four items were used to measure the level of IBPP among student pharmacists. Results: A total of 514 surveys of P2 and P3 students were analyzed. Multiple linear regression indicated a significant association between IBPP and autonomy (p< .01), risk-taking propensity (p< .01), and internal locus of control (p=.03). Furthermore, IBPP was significantly higher among females (p< .01), those 25 years of age and younger (p< .01), and those with at least a Bachelor's degree (p< .01). Conclusion: This study is the first study to evaluate IBPP among student pharmacists in the United States. Based on the findings, autonomy, risk-taking propensity, and internal locus of control are traits to determine in pharmacy school applicants that may increase the likelihood of student pharmacists becoming future pharmacist providers.
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    Outcomes of the UNTHSC TCOM ROME Program on Physician Choice in Field and Location of Practice
    (2020) Gibson, John; Abraham, Stacy; Bowling, John; Adams, Ana
    Purpose: This research was intended to evaluate the effects that the Rural Osteopathic Medical Education (ROME) has had on alumni in their decisions for: specialty, location of practice, and underserved status. This data analysis intended to address the efficacy of this medical education program in accomplishing its intended goals of developing primary care doctors to serve medically underserved and rural areas. Methods: The researchers evaluated the ROME program at Texas College of Osteopathic medicine in Fort Worth, Texas by examining public records and contacting alumni to collect practice information on ROME students who graduated over a span of 10 years (2010-2019). The data from these 110 graduates were then evaluated to see what percentage of these students: matched into a primary care specialty, currently practice in a "rural" (< 50,000) setting, or serve in "Medically Underserved Area" (MUA) as designated by the Health Resources and Services Administration. Results: It was found that of the 110 ROME graduates from 2010-2019, 70.3% were placed into a primary care residency. 41.86% of those currently in practice were in cities with population < 50,000, with 63% practicing in cities < 100,000. Of those currently in practice also 61.36% of are in a "Medically Underserved Area". Conclusion: The Rural Osteopathic Medical Education program is effective in its mission of producing primary care doctors practicing rural medicine and underserved care. These findings are significant with the high need in healthcare for physicians who practice in these areas.
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    Identifying Personality Traits Associated with Entrepreneurial and Intrapreneurial Intentions among Student Pharmacists
    (2020) Nili, Mona; Shaikh, Nazneen; Dwibedi, Nilanjana; Anyanwu, Precious; Kavookjian, Jan; Nadpara, Pramit; Chen, Aleda; Kamal, Khalid; Madhavan, Sundareswaran
    Purpose: Determining personality traits in student pharmacists that are associated with future entrepreneurial or intrapreneurial intentions may help to identify and develop patient-care oriented pharmacists to succeed in a profession that increasingly needs risk takers and innovators for its future success. The objective of this study was to identify the personality traits and characteristics of student pharmacists that are associated with future Entrepreneurial intention (EI) and/or Intrapreneurial intention (II). Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using the Entrepreneurial and Intrapreneurial Pharmacist Questionnaire (EIPQ) with a convenience sample of second (P2) and third (P3) year student pharmacists from six US private and public pharmacy schools. Personality traits measured included locus of control, innovativeness, autonomy, risk-taking propensity, proactiveness, achievement-motivation, people liking, problem-solving, and leadership. Results: A majority of the sample were female, white, and between 18 and 25 years of age. The mean scores of EI and II were 3.23 and 4.22, respectively, on a scale of 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree). Regression models adjusted for socio-economic characteristics showed a significant association between EI and innovativeness, autonomy, proactiveness, being male, and having a family business background. II was positively associated with risk-taking propensity, proactiveness, problem-solving and being white, and negatively associated with having a family business background. Conclusions: The study indicates that student pharmacists have neutral to mild EI and II. However, EI and II were significantly associated with selected personality traits typically associated with entrepreneurs or intrapreneurs.
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    Does Physical and Mental Health Status Differ By Physical Activity Levels In Male and Female Older Adults?
    (2020) Carter, Christen; Fazleabas Tori, Farhana; Boone, Courtney; Boykin, Chelsi
    Purpose: Limited findings are available regarding whether physical activity improves general physical health (PH) and mental health (MH) in older adults; therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether PH and MH differ by aerobic activity (AA) and strength training activity (STA) in older adults. Methods: This cross-sectional analysis used 2017 BRFSS data for adults ages 65 and older in Arizona (N=5117), Iowa (N=2138), Montana (N=1916), Oregon (N=567), and Pennsylvania (N=1643). Ordered logistic regression analysis by state and gender was used to evaluate the relationship between PH and MH with AA and STA, after controlling for health-related, socioeconomic, and demographic factors.​ Results: Adults who met AA and STA guidelines reported high proportions of good PH days (59-79%) and of good MH days (72-88%). The results of adjusted analysis indicated that AA was significantly related to PH in both genders across states and to MH in females in the majority of states. STA was not significantly related to PH or MH across states for both genders. Results also indicated that number of health conditions was significantly related to PH and MH in both genders and weight status was significantly related to PH in females.​ Conclusions: Overall, AA was related to PH in both genders and to MH in older females. Practitioners should educate older patients on managing their physical and mental health and evaluate physical activity levels, with a focus on aerobic activity.
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    Cultural Competency Training: A Literature Review of its Effects on Healthcare
    (2020) Johnson, Ahrein
    Implicit bias and discrimination in health care is found to be a contributing factor to health disparities. As the field of health care becomes more socially aware and adopt socially justice ideologies, efforts to reduce bias and prejudice are often demonstrated as cultural competency trainings and workshops for health care professionals and students. However, there is little to no evidence that shows if this approach is effective. A literature review was conducted to determine a) if cultural competency training among students increase their ability to provide high quality care to underserved individuals, b), what makes a training effective, and c), how curriculum designers and facilitators can improve their effectiveness. The review concluded that there is insufficient rigorous evidence that supports cultural competency trainings' ability to modify implicit bias in healthcare professionals. The findings imply that more comprehensive work must be done in health care to reduce health disparities.
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    "You are Not Alone": Health-Related Barriers to Academic Success among a Health Science Center Graduate Students
    (2020) Griner, Stacey; Mire, Emily; Adhikari, Sujita; Fernandez, Alexander; Ananth, Sushmitha
    Purpose: Research on the graduate student population is either limited or is targeted towards a specific subpopulation. In general, graduate students are vulnerable and can experience a variety of challenges that may impact their academic performance. These challenges may include personal health issues, stress, depression, anxiety, and other unhealthy behaviors. In an effort to further understand graduate student health, this project aims to identify health-related barriers to academic performance among students attending a graduate-serving health science center. Method: Data from the university's National College Health Assessment (NCHA) survey collected by the Office of Care and Civility will be analyzed to identify health barriers influencing academic performance. Barriers with the highest number of frequencies and percentages will be retained for further descriptive and inferential data reporting. Chi-square tests, Fisher's Exact tests, T-Tests will be conducted and a p-value of < .05 will be considered significant. Results: Data from the NCHA will be analyzed following North Texas Institutional Review Board approval. Conclusion: The stress of being a graduate can negatively impact one's academic success, and by identifying prevalent health-related academic barriers, we can create effective and novel interventions that address student development and academic success.
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    The Impact of the Lay Health Educator (LHE) Model on Hepatitis B Screening among the Refugee Population
    (2020) Acharya, Rushil; Raines-Milenkov, Amy; Felini, Martha; Baker, Eva; Akpan, Idara N.
    Purpose: Hepatitis B (HBV) is a viral infection affecting the liver which may lead to acute and chronic diseases such as cirrhosis and liver cancer. Although refugees are required to screen for hepatitis B at the time of arrival in the U.S., many of them are not aware of their hepatitis B results and there are gaps in follow-up care for individuals who test positive. The Building Bridges program responds to this unmet need through hepatitis B education, screening and navigation to follow-up clinical care. This study aims to evaluate the impact of Building Bridges lay health educator (LHE) model as an approach to increase hepatitis B screening among the refugee population. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of HBV screening was conducted among the refugee population enrolled in the Building Bridges program from 2014 to 2020. Statistical analysis was performed using Microsoft Excel and Statistical Analysis System (SAS). Hepatitis B screening completion rates were calculated. Results: 1053 female and male enrolled refugees were asked about previous hepatitis B screening. 717 participants were eligible, of those, 680 participants were never screened. At post enrollment, 303 participants received hepatitis B screening. Conclusions: The LHE model helped to increase Hepatitis B screening. Lay health educators play significant roles in facilitating access to health care. There is need for more research on the impact of the LHE model in motivating the need for preventive health screening. More research is needed to understand why some participants did not choose to be screened.
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    The Impact of the SAGE Program on UNTHSC students
    (2020) Johnson, Emily
    Purpose: By 2040, the population aged 65 and older is estimated to reach 80.8 million in the United States. This increase in the older population needs to be matched by larger numbers of healthcare practitioners equipped to provide care for their needs. The Seniors Assisting in Geriatric Education (SAGE) program was established to increase exposure of health professions students to the aging population, develop stronger interprofessional skills, and improve future care. This study looked at the impact of the SAGE program on the UNTHSC students in relation to attitudes towards older adults and interprofessional collaboration. Methods: A voluntary survey was administered before the first visit with the senior mentor and after the last visit. Responses from 178 individuals were analyzed, from the medical, physical therapy and pharmacy disciplines. The survey contained items adapted from the Geriatric Attitudes Scale (GAS) and the ‘Core Competencies for Interprofessional Collaborative Practice'. The Likert 5-point scale was used for analysis. A dependent t-test compared the responses pre and post. Results: There were significant increases in interprofessional attitudes among the students. There was also a significant increase in students viewing the elderly as more pleasant and a significant decrease in students viewing medical care for elderly as excessive. No significant differences were found regarding responses for programs or gender. Conclusions: The SAGE program has contributed to the improvement in attitudes towards interprofessional teamwork. Additional interdisciplinary programs should be created to foster better collaboration among professions and allow for more exposure to the senior population.