Permanent URI for this collectionhttps://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12503/30434


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 5 of 5
  • Item
    Metformin Nanoparticles for Liver Delivery
    (2021) Dong, Xiaowei; Olowookere, Yetunde; Xu, Yong; Yang, Shaohua
    Metformin Nanoparticles for Liver Delivery Purpose: Metformin hydrochloride is a biguanide, an antidiabetic medicine, taken orally to lower blood sugar in diabetic patients, especially with Type 2 diabetes. Metformin is hydrophilic in nature and it has been observed that overtime, higher doses are usually required for effectiveness. This might result from low bioavailability due to its formulation. The purpose of this study was to develop a HPLC- method for Metformin Hydrochloride that will be used for further formulation development. Method: Metformin hydrochloride solution was analyzed quantitatively using Waters HPLC separation module 2695 equipped with auto injector and detector (PDA 2996) and UV detector (2487), Embedded with Empower software. Method was developed by utilizing a reverse phase chromatographic with Column Ultimate XB-SCX Dim 4.6 x250mm, with an ambient temperature, 5µm particle size, Flow rate 1ml/min, Wavelength 232nm, Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate as the mobile phase and injection volume of 10µl. Forced degradation studies were conducted by employing stress conditions with various concentrations of HCl, NaOH, H2O2 for acid hydrolysis, base hydrolysis and oxidation. Results:The detection of the eluent was consistently observed at around 11 minutes for all concentrations. SD value was low, RSD was around 1% indicating accuracy and reproducibility with regression coefficient R ≥ 0.997 with six different concentrations from 1mg/ml-100mg/ml. Conclusion:The quantitative analysis result for the HPLC method was close to 100% and it did not appear there was any interference from the excipients. The method was simple, rapid and reproducible and useful for further drug formulation development.
  • Item
    Prevalence of Early Puberty in Children on the Outcomes of Type 2 Diabetes Risk
    (2021) Quach, Shanon
    Purpose: Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is no longer considered an adult-onset disease as the prevalence and incidence have increased in children. T2DM can cause devastating effects to major organs of the body and lifetime management. This study aims to examine pubertal factors as risk indicators for T2DM. Methods: This is a cross sectional analysis of data collected in a parent - children survey that evaluated the risks and predictors of T2DM. The participants were aged 10 to 14 years old and did not have diagnosed T2DM (N=153). Pubertal age was measured via the Tanner stages. Early puberty was indicated at ≤11 years. Independent two sample t-tests were conducted with each pubertal variable against risk of T2DM. Results: The study population consisted of 74 boys and 79 girls. Age for boys was evenly distributed among 9-14, while in girls it was right skewed in the 8-13 range. Growth of hair among both boys and girls had a mild association (p=0.28), as did first menstruation for girls (earlier menstruation, p=0.21). If a boy had increased development compared to their peers, they had an increased risk of T2DM as well (p=0.05). Conclusion: There seems to be some association of pubertal characteristics to increase risk of T2DM in children. Early puberty can be affected by various factors such as low socioeconomic status, unhealthy diets, and childhood obesity. T2DM can be prevented via behavioral modifications. Understanding pubertal risk factors could allow clinicians to work with parents to avoid T2DM in children.
  • Item
    Do Nutrition Labels Tell the Whole Story?: Analysis of Total Sugar, Added Sugar and Free Sugar on HbA1c
    (2021) Tate, Kayla; Spears, Erica
    Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) contributes significantly to the burden of disease in the United States and globally. Previous research has shown that nutrition labeling is an effective prevention strategy for T2DM. Furthermore, a growing body of evidence suggests that free sugar (sugars present in added sugar, 100% fruit juice, and syrups) as opposed to total and added sugar, may be more predictive of negative health outcomes than total or added sugar. Thus, free sugar may be a more informative sugar type for labeling purposes. The purpose of the present study was to examine associations between total, added and free sugar calculated from beverages reported in the 24h dietary recall in NHANES 2016-2017 (N = 2168), and HbA1c, a diagnostic test for T2DM. Total sugar and added sugar were calculated using NHANES supplemental data sets detailing the nutritional information for food items reported, and free sugar was calculated through a validated 10-step method which involved examining the ingredients of each beverage. Multiple regression modeling was utilized to examine the associations of each sugar type on HbA1c while controlling for confounding variables. As hypothesized, total sugar intake was not significantly associated with HbA1c. Inconsistent with hypotheses, intakes of free sugar and added sugar were not significantly associated with HbA1c. There is a complex relationship between obesity, sugar consumption and T2DM, and further research is needed to investigate these complexities in order to best inform future public health decisions regarding nutrition labeling.
  • Item
    5-Methoxyindole-2-Carboxylic Acid (MICA) Fails to Retard Development and Progression of Type II Diabetes in ZSF1 Diabetic Rats
    (2021) Yan, Liang-Jun
    Purpose: 5-Methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (MICA) is a well-established reversible inhibitor of mitochondrial dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLDH). This chemical, as an indole derivative, has been shown to be neuroprotective against ischemic stroke injury when administered either before or after ischemic stroke in animal models. MICA has also been studied as a potential antidiabetic agent by numerous investigators, though the underlying mechanisms remain sketchy. To attempt to elucidate the mechanisms of its antidiabetic action, we tested the effect of MICA on ZSF1 rat, a widely used rodent model of type 2 diabetes. Methods: ZSF1 rats as well as its healthy controls were fed with control diet or MICA-containing diet (200 mg/kg/day) for 9 weeks, and then comparison of body weight changes and blood glucose levels at the end of the 9-week's feeding period were made. Conclusion: Our data indicate, unexpectedly, that MICA failed to show any anti-diabetic effect in the ZSF1 diabetic rats. The reasons for this failure were briefly discussed.
  • Item
    Early stage diabetic neuropathy reduces foot strength and intrinsic but not extrinsic foot muscle size
    (2021) Henderson, Adrienne; Peine, Weston; Johnson, A.; Rasmussen, Lindsey; Symons, Sydney; Scoresby, Kade; Ridge, Sarah; Bruening, Dustin
    Purpose: To evaluate individual intrinsic and extrinsic foot muscle sizes and functional foot strength in participants with diabetic peripheral polyneuropathy (DPN). Methods: Thirty individuals participated in this cross-sectional study (15 DPN and 15 matched controls). Sizes of 10 separate muscles of the lower leg and foot were measured using ultrasound imaging. Functional foot strength was also quantified using custom great toe and lateral toe flexion tests along with a doming test. Muscle size and strength metrics were compared between groups using ANOVAs and paired t-tests (p=0.05). Correlations between strength and relevant muscle sizes were also evaluated. Results: The sizes of all four intrinsic foot muscles were smaller in individuals with DPN (p≤0.03), while only one (toe extensor) of the six extrinsic muscles was smaller (p< 0.01). Great toe (p=0.03) and lateral toe flexion (p< 0.01) strength were decreased between groups and showed moderate to strong correlations (0.43≤r≤0.80) with several corresponding intrinsic muscle sizes. The doming strength test did not show any difference between groups and was moderately correlated with one muscle size (r=0.59). Conclusion: Diabetic peripheral polyneuropathy affects intrinsic muscles before extrinsics. Ultrasound imaging of individual muscles and functional toe flexion tests can be used clinically to monitor DPN progression and foot function. Participants need to be trained in the doming test before a relationship can be established between this test and DPN foot function. Future studies should include muscle quality measurements to better understand characteristics of affected muscles.