Publications -- Suchismita Acharya

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This collection is limited to articles published under the terms of a creative commons license or other open access publishing agreement since 2016. It is not intended as a complete list of the author's works.


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Now showing 1 - 9 of 9
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    Neuroprotective and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Hybrid Small-Molecule SA-10 in Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Retinal Neuronal Injury Models
    (MDPI, 2024-03-13) Amankwa, Charles E.; Acha, Lorea G.; Dibas, Adnan; Chavala, Sai H.; Roth, Steven; Mathew, Biji; Acharya, Suchismita
    Embolism, hyperglycemia, high intraocular pressure-induced increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and microglial activation result in endothelial/retinal ganglion cell death. Here, we conducted in vitro and in vivo ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) efficacy studies of a hybrid antioxidant-nitric oxide donor small molecule, SA-10, to assess its therapeutic potential for ocular stroke. METHODS: To induce I/R injury and inflammation, we subjected R28 and primary microglial cells to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) for 6 h in vitro or treated these cells with a cocktail of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IFN-gamma for 1 h, followed by the addition of SA-10 (10 microM). Inhibition of microglial activation, ROS scavenging, cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory activities were measured. In vivo I/R-injured mouse retinas were treated with either PBS or SA-10 (2%) intravitreally, and pattern electroretinogram (ERG), spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, flash ERG and retinal immunocytochemistry were performed. RESULTS: SA-10 significantly inhibited microglial activation and inflammation in vitro. Compared to the control, the compound SA-10 significantly attenuated cell death in both microglia (43% vs. 13%) and R28 cells (52% vs. 17%), decreased ROS (38% vs. 68%) production in retinal microglia cells, preserved neural retinal function and increased SOD1 in mouse eyes. CONCLUSION: SA-10 is protective to retinal neurons by decreasing oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines.
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    Therapeutic Potential of Antioxidants and Hybrid TEMPOL Derivatives in Ocular Neurodegenerative Diseases: A Glimpse into the Future
    (MDPI, 2023-11-25) Amankwa, Charles E.; Kodati, Bindu; Donkor, Nina; Acharya, Suchismita
    Reactive oxygen species play a significant role in the pathogenesis of various ocular neurodegenerative diseases especially glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and ocular ischemic stroke. Increased oxidative stress and the accumulation of ROS have been implicated in the progression of these diseases. As a result, there has been growing interest in exploring potential therapeutic and prophylactic strategies involving exogenous antioxidants. In recent years, there have been significant advancements in the development of synthetic therapeutic antioxidants for targeting reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neurodegenerative diseases. One area of focus has been the development of hybrid TEMPOL derivatives. In the context of ocular diseases, the application of next-generation hybrid TEMPOL antioxidants may offer new avenues for neuroprotection. By targeting ROS and reducing oxidative stress in the retina and optic nerve, these compounds have the potential to preserve retinal ganglion cells and trabecular meshwork and protect against optic nerve damage, mitigating irreversible blindness associated with these diseases. This review seeks to highlight the potential impact of hybrid TEMPOL antioxidants and their derivatives on ocular neurodegenerative disorders.
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    Modulation of Mitochondrial Metabolic Parameters and Antioxidant Enzymes in Healthy and Glaucomatous Trabecular Meshwork Cells with Hybrid Small Molecule SA-2
    (MDPI, 2023-07-29) Amankwa, Charles E.; Young, Olivia; DebNath, Biddut; Gondi, Sudershan R.; Rangan, Rajiv; Ellis, Dorette Z.; Zode, Gulab S.; Stankowska, Dorota L.; Acharya, Suchismita
    Oxidative stress (OS)-induced mitochondrial damage is a risk factor for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Mitochondria-targeted novel antioxidant therapies could unearth promising drug candidates for the management of POAG. Previously, our dual-acting hybrid molecule SA-2 with nitric oxide-donating and antioxidant activity reduced intraocular pressure and improved aqueous humor outflow in rodent eyes. Here, we examined the mechanistic role of SA-2 in trabecular meshwork (TM) cells in vitro and measured the activity of intracellular antioxidant enzymes during OS. Primary human TM cells isolated from normal (hNTM) or glaucomatous (hGTM) post-mortem donors and transformed glaucomatous TM cells (GTM-3) were used for in vitro assays. We examined the effect of SA-2 on oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) in vitro using Seahorse Analyzer with or without the oxidant, tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) treatment. Concentrations of total antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured. We observed significant protection of both hNTM and hGTM cells from TBHP-induced cell death by SA-2. Antioxidant enzymes were elevated in SA-2-treated cells compared to TBHP-treated cells. In addition, SA-2 demonstrated an increase in mitochondrial metabolic parameters. Altogether, SA-2 protected both normal and glaucomatous TM cells from OS via increasing mitochondrial energy parameters and the activity of antioxidant enzymes.
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    Neuroprotection of Rodent and Human Retinal Ganglion Cells In Vitro/Ex Vivo by the Hybrid Small Molecule SA-2
    (MDPI, 2022-12-12) Pham, Jennifer H.; Johnson, Gretchen A.; Rangan, Rajiv S.; Amankwa, Charles E.; Acharya, Suchismita; Stankowska, Dorota L.
    The mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of the hybrid antioxidant-nitric oxide donating compound SA-2 in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration models were evaluated. The in vitro trophic factor (TF) deprivation model in primary rat RGCs and ex vivo human retinal explants were used to mimic glaucomatous neurodegeneration. Cell survival was assessed after treatment with vehicle or SA-2. In separate experiments, tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) and endothelin-3 (ET-3) were used in ex vivo rat retinal explants and primary rat RGCs, respectively, to induce oxidative damage. Mitochondrial and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assessed following treatments. In the TF deprivation model, SA-2 treatment produced a significant decrease in apoptotic and dead cell counts in primary RGCs and a significant increase in RGC survival in ex vivo human retinal explants. In the oxidative stress-induced models, a significant decrease in the production of ROS was observed in the SA-2-treated group compared to the vehicle-treated group. Compound SA-2 was neuroprotective against various glaucomatous insults in the rat and human RGCs by reducing apoptosis and decreasing ROS levels. Amelioration of mitochondrial and cellular oxidative stress by SA-2 may be a potential therapeutic strategy for preventing neurodegeneration in glaucomatous RGCs.
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    Small Immunomodulatory Molecules as Potential Therapeutics in Experimental Murine Models of Acute Lung Injury (ALI)/Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)
    (MDPI, 2021-03-04) Shah, Dilip; Das, Pragnya; Acharya, Suchismita; Agarwal, Beamon; Christensen, Dale J.; Robertson, Stella M.; Bhandari, Vineet
    BACKGROUND: Acute lung injury (ALI) or its most advanced form, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe inflammatory pulmonary process triggered by a variety of insults including sepsis, viral or bacterial pneumonia, and mechanical ventilator-induced trauma. Currently, there are no effective therapies available for ARDS. We have recently reported that a novel small molecule AVR-25 derived from chitin molecule (a long-chain polymer of N-acetylglucosamine) showed anti-inflammatory effects in the lungs. The goal of this study was to determine the efficacy of two chitin-derived compounds, AVR-25 and AVR-48, in multiple mouse models of ALI/ARDS. We further determined the safety and pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of the lead compound AVR-48 in rats. METHODS: ALI in mice was induced by intratracheal instillation of a single dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 µg) for 24 h or exposed to hyperoxia (100% oxygen) for 48 h or undergoing cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) procedure and observation for 10 days. RESULTS: Both chitin derivatives, AVR-25 and AVR-48, showed decreased neutrophil recruitment and reduced inflammation in the lungs of ALI mice. Further, AVR-25 and AVR-48 mediated diminished lung inflammation was associated with reduced expression of lung adhesion molecules with improvement in pulmonary endothelial barrier function, pulmonary edema, and lung injury. Consistent with these results, CLP-induced sepsis mice treated with AVR-48 showed a significant increase in survival of the mice (80%) and improved lung histopathology in the treated CLP group. AVR-48, the lead chitin derivative compound, demonstrated a good safety profile. CONCLUSION: Both AVR-25 and AVR-48 demonstrate the potential to be developed as therapeutic agents to treat ALI/ARDS.
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    Novel Chitohexaose Analog Protects Young and Aged mice from CLP Induced Polymicrobial Sepsis
    (Springer Nature, 2019-02-27) Das, Pragnya; Panda, Santosh K.; Agarwal, Beamon; Behera, Sumita; Ali, Syed M.; Pulse, Mark E.; Solomkin, Joseph S.; Opal, Steven M.; Bhandari, Vineet; Acharya, Suchismita
    In Gram-negative bacterial sepsis, production of excess pro-inflammatory cytokines results in hyperinflammation and tissue injury. Anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 inhibit inflammation and enhance tissue healing. Here, we report a novel approach to treat septicemia associated with intra-abdominal infection in a murine model by delicately balancing pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. A novel oligosaccharide compound AVR-25 selectively binds to the TLR4 protein (IC50 = 0.15 µM) in human peripheral blood monocytes and stimulates IL-10 production. Following the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) procedure, intravenous dosing of AVR-25 (10 mg/kg, 6-12 h post-CLP) alone and in combination with antibiotic imipenem protected both young adult (10-12 week old) and aged (16-18 month old) mice against polymicrobial infection, organ dysfunction, and death. Proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-ɑ, MIP-1, i-NOS) were decreased significantly and restoration of tissue damage was observed in all organs. A decrease in serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and bacterial colony forming unit (CFU) confirmed improved bacterial clearance. Together, these findings demonstrate the therapeutic ability of AVR-25 to mitigate the storm of inflammation and minimize tissue injury with high potential for adjunctive therapy in intra-abdominal sepsis.
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    Novel Thiol Containing Hybrid Antioxidant-Nitric Oxide Donor Small Molecules for Treatment of Glaucoma
    (MDPI, 2021-04-08) Amankwa, Charles E.; Gondi, Sudershan R.; Dibas, Adnan Dibas; Weston, Courtney; Funk, Arlene; Nguyen, Tam; Nguyen, Kytai T.; Ellis, Dorette Z.; Acharya, Suchismita
    Oxidative stress induced death and dysregulation of trabecular meshwork (TM) cells contribute to the increased intraocular pressure (IOP) in primary open angle (POAG) glaucoma patients. POAG is one of the major causes of irreversible vision loss worldwide. Nitric oxide (NO), a small gas molecule, has demonstrated IOP lowering activity in glaucoma by increasing aqueous humor outflow and relaxing TM. Glaucomatous pathology is associated with decreased antioxidant enzyme levels in ocular tissues causing increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production that reduce the bioavailability of NO. Here, we designed, synthesized, and conducted in vitro studies of novel second-generation sulfur containing hybrid NO donor-antioxidants SA-9 and its active metabolite SA-10 to scavenge broad-spectrum ROS as well as provide efficient protection from t-butyl hydrogen peroxide (TBHP) induced oxidative stress while maintaining NO bioavailability in TM cells. To allow a better drug delivery, a slow release nanosuspension SA-9 nanoparticles (SA-9 NPs) was prepared, characterized, and tested in dexamethasone induced ocular hypertensive (OHT) mice model for IOP lowering activity. A single topical eye drop of SA-9 NPs significantly lowered IOP (61%) at 3 h post-dose, with the effect lasting up to 72 h. This class of molecule has high potential to be useful for treatment of glaucoma.
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    Hybrid Nitric Oxide Donor and its Carrier for the Treatment of Peripheral Arterial Diseases
    (Springer Nature, 2017-08-18) Le, Duong Q.; Kuriakose, Aneetta E.; Nguyen, Dat X.; Nguyen, Kytai T.; Acharya, Suchismita
    Nitric oxide (NO) has been known to promote physiological angiogenesis to treat peripheral arterial diseases (PAD) by increasing the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level in endothelial cells (ECs) and preventing platelet adherence and leukocyte chemotaxis. However, the ongoing ischemic event during peripheral ischemia produces superoxide and diminishes the NO bioavailability by forming toxic peroxynitrite anion. Here we disclose an efficacious hybrid molecule 4-(5-Amino-1,2,3-oxadiazol-3-yl)-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinol (SA-2) containing both antioxidant and NO donor functionalities that provide a therapeutic level of NO necessary to promote angiogenesis and to protect ECs against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress. Compound SA-2 scavenged reactive oxygen species, inhibited proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and promoted the tube formation from ECs. Copolymer poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles loaded with SA-2 provided a sustained release of NO over days, improved aqueous stability in serum, protected ECs against oxidative stress, and enhanced angiogenesis under stress conditions as compared to that of the control in the in vitro matrigel tube formation assay. These results indicated the potential use of SA-2 nanoparticles as an alternative therapy to treat PAD.
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    Chitin-Derived AVR-48 Prevents Experimental Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD) and BPD-Associated Pulmonary Hypertension in Newborn Mice
    (MDPI, 2021-08-09) Das, Pragnya; Acharya, Suchismita; Prahaladan, Varsha M.; Kumova, Ogan K.; Malaeb, Shadi; Behera, Sumita; Agarwal, Beamon; Christensen, Dale J.; Carey, Alison J.; Bhandari, Vineet
    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common complication of prematurity and a key contributor to the large health care burden associated with prematurity, longer hospital stays, higher hospital costs, and frequent re-hospitalizations of affected patients through the first year of life and increased resource utilization throughout childhood. This disease is associated with abnormal pulmonary function that may lead to BPD-associated pulmonary hypertension (PH), a major contributor to neonatal mortality and morbidity. In the absence of any definitive treatment options, this life-threatening disease is associated with high resource utilization during and after neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stay. The goal of this study was to test the safety and efficacy of a small molecule derivative of chitin, AVR-48, as prophylactic therapy for preventing experimental BPD in a mouse model. Two doses of AVR-48 were delivered either intranasally (0.11 mg/kg), intraperitoneally (10 mg/kg), or intravenously (IV) (10 mg/kg) to newborn mouse pups on postnatal day (P)2 and P4. The outcomes were assessed by measuring total inflammatory cells in the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF), chord length, septal thickness, and radial alveolar counts of the alveoli, Fulton's Index (for PH), cell proliferation and cell death by immunostaining, and markers of inflammation by Western blotting and ELISA. The bioavailability and safety of the drug were assessed by pharmacokinetic and toxicity studies in both neonatal mice and rat pups (P3-P5). Following AVR-48 treatment, alveolar simplification was improved, as evident from chord length, septal thickness, and radial alveolar counts; total inflammatory cells were decreased in the BALF; Fulton's Index was decreased and lung inflammation and cell death were decreased, while angiogenesis and cell proliferation were increased. AVR-48 was found to be safe and the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) in rat pups was determined to be 100 mg/kg when delivered via IV dosing with a 20-fold safety margin. With no reported toxicity and with a shorter half-life, AVR-48 is able to reverse the worsening cardiopulmonary phenotype of experimental BPD and BPD-PH, compared to controls, thus positioning it as a future drug candidate.