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Item17 Beta-Estradiol, Integrins, and Synaptic Proteins(2009-05-01) Chandra, Manjari; Dr. James Simpkins Item17Beta-Estradiol Suppresses Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Nuclear Factor Kappa B Activation in HT22 Cells(2008-05-01) Kim, Pil J.; Simpkins; Singh; YangKim, Pil J., 17beta-estradiol suppresses hydrogen peroxide-induced nuclear factor κappa B activation in HT22 cells. Master of Science (Biomedical Sciences), May, 2008, 78pp., 20 illustrations, 66 titles. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are natural byproducts of normal cellular reactions. They are oxygen ions, free (non)radicals, and peroxides that are highly reactive with normal macromolecules, such as lipids, DNA, and proteins. Cells are normally able to defend against the damages of ROS via enzymes that neutralize them into water. However, when cells are not able to cope with the accumulation of ROS, distributions in signaling pathways and gene transcription will occur, which will ultimately lead to cell death. It is now widely accepted that increased oxidative stress-induced damage in the brain is a major cause of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Nuclear factor κappa-B (NFκB) is not only a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor but also a signaling protein that is activated by ROS-induced oxidative stress. Our laboratory has demonstrated the neuroprotective effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) are elicited via an anti-oxidant effect. The purpose of this project was to determine the role of NFκB activation in E2-mediated neuroprotection against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress. HT-22, a murine immortalized hippocampal neuronal cell line, was utilized to determine whether NFκB is activated by hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and whether E2 suppresses H2O2-induced NFκB activation. We observed that H2O2 activated NFκB by phosphorylation of IκBα (pIκBα), one of the NFκB inhibitor proteins, reduction of total IκBα, and induction of NFκB (p65) nuclear translocation. In contrast, E2 suppressed H2O2-induced NFκB activation by dramatic reducing pIκBα, increasing total IκBα, and inhibiting p65 nuclear translocation. Our results show that one of the mechanisms by which estrogens are neuroprotective against oxidative stress is through the attenuation of H2O2-induced NFκB activation. Item[3H] Ethynylbicycloorthobenzoate ([3H] EBOB) Binding in Native and Recombinant GABAA Receptors(2000-05-01) Yagle, Monica A.; Glenn Dillon; Michael Martin; Christopher de FiebreYagle, Monica A., [3H] Ethynylbicycloorthobenzoate ([3H] EBOB) Binding in Native and Recombinant GABAA Receptors. Master of Science (Pharmacology), May 2000, 59 pp., 3 tables, 7 illustrations, bibliography, 75 titles. Modulation of the GABAA receptor has been studied with noncompetitive convulsant ligands such as tert-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (TBPS) and picrotoxin (PTX). EBOB is a more recently developed ligand that appears to bind in the same region of the channel at TBPS, but with a higher affinity. While only a few studies have examined the binding of EBOB to vertebrate brain tissue and insect preparations, none have examined potential subunit-dependent binding of EBOB. We have thus examined [3H] EBOB binding in rat cerebellum and HEK293 cells stably expressing human α1β2γ2, human α2β2γ2, and rat α6β2γ2 GABAA receptors. For comparison, [35S] TBPS binding was also examined in α1β2γ2 receptors. Saturation and Scatchard analyses revealed saturable [3H] EBOB binding at one site in all tissue preparations with Kd values ranging from 3 to 9nM. [3H] EBOB binding, like [35S] TBPS binding was inhibited by the CNS convulsants dieldrin, lindane, tert-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (TBOB), PTX, TBPS, and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) at one site in a concentration dependent fashion. Affinities were in the high nM to low μM range for all compounds except PTZ (low mM range). GABA modulated [3H] EBOB binding in a biphasic manner in α1β2γ2 receptors with a 100-fold difference between stimulatory and inhibitory affinities. Inhibition of GABA-mediated current by TBOB in α1β2γ2 receptors resulted in a functional IC50 of 0.2 μM, in agreement with binding study results. Differences seen in binding between the different receptor subtypes examined suggest that some characteristics of EBOB binding are subunit dependent. In addition, we have shown that [3H] EBOB is a useful ligand in the study of recombinant GABAA receptors and that results obtained with [3H] EBOB are comparable to those obtained with [35S] TBPS. ItemA Bone and Buccal Sensitivity Study Comparison and Stability Study using the PowerPlex[R] Fusion 6C System(2018-05) McDaniel, Ethan L.; Warren, Joseph E.; Planz, John V.; Krishnamoorthy, Raghu R.; Gaydosh-Combs, LauraA validation study, a bone sensitivity study and a stability study were performed using the PowerPlex[R] Fusion 6C System. These studies were performed on a 7500 Real-Time PCR System, 9700 GeneAmp Thermocycler and 3500xL Genetic Analyzer. Buccal DNA was used to develop a method to analyze the DNA profiles gathered during the bone sensitivity study and stability study. DNA profiles for specific concentrations of DNA in solution were obtained during the bone sensitivity study. The stability study showed profiles exhibiting the effects of metal PCR inhibitors being introduced to the DNA extract solutions. Full profiles were obtained for calcium concentrations less than 7.35 mM, while the instrument was fully inhibited for copper concentrations between 0mM and 7.35 mM. Based on the limited data, the PowerPlex Fusion 6C System cannot tolerate copper when present in DNA solutions; whereas, calcium may be tolerated as an inhibitor up to 7.35mM. ItemA Cadaveric Investigation of the Dorsal Scapular Nerve(2016-12-01) Nguyen, Vuvi H.; Rustin E. Reeves; Hao Liu; Armando A. RosalesDorsal scapular nerve (DSN) syndrome is often associated with sharp, dull, or aching pain in the upper extremity and back. The primary cause of pain is the entrapment of this nerve at the middle scalene muscle. Even though there is clinical evidence that DSN syndrome exists, it is often overlooked during clinical diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to locate the surface projection of the DSN relative to the middle scalene muscle while using the laryngeal prominence as a reference point. From 20 embalmed adult cadavers, 23 DSN were dissected and documented regarding its spinal root origins, anatomical route, and muscular innervations. A transverse plane through the laryngeal prominence was established to measure the distance of the DSN as it enters, crosses, and exits the middle scalene muscle. Approximately 70% of the DSNs originated from C5, 22% branched from C4, and 8% from C6. In regards to the route of the DSN in relation to the middle scalene muscle, 74% of the DSNs pierced this muscle, 13% crossed this muscle anteriorly, and 13% traveled posterior to this muscle. About 48% of the DSNs supplied the levator scapulae muscle only and 52% innervated the levator scapulae and both the rhomboid muscles. The average distances from a transverse plane of the laryngeal prominence to where the DSN entered, crossed, and exited the middle scalene muscle were 1.50 cm (±0.88 cm), 1.79cm (±0.89 cm), and 2.08 cm (±0.96 cm) respectively. Injection studies were performed on 10 un-dissected embalmed cadavers to verify the accuracy of our surface projection measurements of the DSN relative to the middle scalene muscle. These injections were performed at approximately 2.08 cm (~1 thumb interphalangeal joint width) from the transverse plane of the laryngeal prominence. Dissections at these injection sites revealed that the scalene muscles were consistently located. The middle scalene muscle was accurately located in approximately 50% of the injections. The goal of this research is to understand the variability in DSN's anatomy as well as introduce a method that will assist clinicians to efficiently pinpoint and therefore treat patients with DSN entrapment. ItemA Calcium-Dependent Nuclear Signaling Pathway Transcriptionally Silences Atrial Natriuretic Factor Gene Expression(1995-08-01) Zeng, Hong; Stephen R. Grant; Walter McConathy; Richard EasomZeng, Hong, A Calcium-Dependent Nuclear Signaling Pathway Transcriptionally Silences Atrial Natriuretic Factor Gene Expression. Master of Science (Biomedical Science), August, 1995, 85 pp., 2 tables, 20 illustrations, bibliography, 90 titles. A cultured myocardial cell model was used to examine a potential role of calcium-dependent protein kinases and phosphatases in regulating the induction of the atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) gene mediated through adrenoreceptor signaling. In primary culture, rat neonate cardiomyocytes supplemented with phenylephrine (PE) following transfection (24 h) with a full length ANF promoter-reporter construct, showed elevated levels of promoter activity when compared to transfected cardiomyocytes cultured in the absence of PE. Prazosin, a dedicated α1-antagonist, completely blocked the transcriptional induction mediated through PE stimulation. Two different calcium mobilizing agents, BAY K8644 and gramicidin D, significantly reduced PE-stimulated ANF promoter activity. The over-expression of co-transfected exogenous CaM kinase II isoforms resulted in transcriptional silencing of PE-induced promoter activity for cardiac ANF. Transfection of a constitutively active, mutant form of the calcium-dependent phosphatase 2B, calcineurin, gene also transcriptionally silenced ANF gene expression. Exposure of PE-induced cardiomyocytes to either FK-506-treated cells in the absence of PE exposure suggesting that transcriptional silencing may be mediated through a transcriptional repression mechanism. Taken together, these results suggest that the activation of a Ca2+-dependent nuclear signaling pathway mediated through either CaM kinase II or calcineurin leads to complete transcriptional silencing of the embryonic ANF gene expression. ItemA Case Study Analysis of the Healthcare Safety Net's Emergency Response Capabilities(2010-05-01) Barnes, Kirk T.; Dr. Kristine LykensHealthcare safety net providers care for medically vulnerable populations on a daily basis. During disasters they play a crucial role in maintaining the continuity of healthcare services for individuals with chronic illness and limited resources whether they evacuate or remain. This study examines the roles and responsibilities of healthcare safety net providers in Louisiana, and their ability to assist in emergency response and recovery efforts. The research uses case study methodology to examine the roles and responsibilities of healthcare safety net providers during recent hurricane events. Roles examined include operating special needs shelters, mobile medical clinics, coordination of emergency resources and assisting medically vulnerable patients with the location of medications. The research will focus on the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) funded programs in the State of Louisiana. Healthcare safety net programs included in the research include: Louisiana HIV/AIDS Program (Part B), Louisiana Primary Care Association, Louisiana Bureau of Primary Health Care, Louisiana Office of Rural Health, New Orleans and Baton Rouge HIV/AIDS programs (Part A), and Louisiana Maternal and Child Health Program. The research identifies multiple areas in which emergency response and recovery efforts could be enhanced through a greater integration with healthcare safety net providers. ItemA Clinical Research Study Involving the Use of Erythropoietin in Perioperative Patients Undergoing Surgery for Gynecologic Cancer(2002-07-01) Larson, Sharon Beth; Barbara Richardson; Michael MartinThe purpose of this internship practicum report is to analyze the pathophysiology and impact of anemia in low-income gynecologic cancer patients. The report also assesses the impact of erythropoietin on hemoglobin levels prior to gynecologic cancer surgery. This report is based on a clinical research study to determine whether or not erythropoietin will mitigate the suppression of bone marrow inherent to the gynecologic cancer population and alleviate some of the symptoms and side effects of the anemia. ItemA Comparative Analysis of Recruitment Methods used in Randomized Controlled Clinical Drug Trials(2019-05) Garud, Ashwini A.; Mathew, Stephen O.; Goulopoulou, Styliani; Anderson, Jessica; Maynard, BrianClinical trials are a crucial part of any drug development process. The reliability and validity of clinical trials depend on the successful recruitment of subjects. The overall goal of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of subject recruitment methods used in Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) focusing on Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Postpartum Depression (PPD) studies. Recruitment methods (on-site and off-site) utilized in these trials were examined for their cost-effectiveness, recruitment return, including the number of subjects enrolled and the number of subjects randomized in the trial and subject demographics. Regarding cost effectiveness, on-site methods were found to be more effective in terms of recruitment return and less costly than off-site for both studies. There was a significant difference in race and gender when subjects were recruited from on-site versus off-site recruitment. For MDD study, a comparatively large number of enrolled and randomized participants were recruited from on-site recruitment methods as compared to off-site, this may be due to the number of physician referrals, indicating that physicians play a major role in subject recruitment. For the Postpartum Depression study, the number of enrolled and randomized subjects from off-site recruitment method was higher than those of on-site methods. Monitoring recruitment strategies implemented in the study and assessing their effectiveness would be helpful in employing strategies for future trials. ItemA Comparative Breast Cancer Study: Stage & Mortality in El Paso County's non-Hispanic white and Hispanic population(2003-05-01) Aravind, Raven; Russel HovermanAravind, Raven, A Comparative Breast Cancer Study: Stage & Mortality in El PasoCounty's non-Hispanic white and Hispanic population, 1990-2000. Master of Public Health (Epidemiology), May 2003, 17pp., 1 table, 3 figures, bibliography, 43 titles. This retrospective breast cancer study compares the stage of breast cancer diagnosis and mortality between Hispanic (HS) and non-Hispanic white women (NHW). The study includes 874 Hispanic women and 802 non-Hispanic white women diagnosed with breast cancer between January 1990 and December 2000 at the El Paso Cancer Treatment Center, El Paso Texas. The objectives of the study were: 1) to determine if this population of Hispanic women is being diagnosed at a later stage of breast cancer 2) to ascertain the relative survival of non-Hispanic white and Hispanic women 3) to verify if Hispanic women were being diagnosed at a younger age; and 4) to examine tumor size at diagnosis to determine if there is a need for more assertive screening measures in this population of women. ItemA Comparative Review of Screening, Consent, and Trial Visits and Follow-up Practices in Cardiovascular Dual Antiplatelet Therapy Drug, Device, and Registry Studies at Legacy Heart Center and The Heart Hospital Baylor Plano(2014-12-01) Mohiuddin, Ismail S.; Patricia A. Gwirtz; Rustin E. ReevesCoronary artery disease (CAD) is the number one cause of death in the United States and a large amount of research has been conducted to find the best treatment strategy to treat and prevent it. The PEGASUS-TIMI 54 study, a drug trial, the PzF SHIELD study, a device trial, and the TIGRIS study, a registry trial, build off of that research and are seeking novel strategies to improve patient outcomes There are significant differences between drug, device, and registry clinical research trials. Comparing these three dual antiplatelet research studies on the basis of screening, consent, and trial visits and follow-up practices gives insight into the distinct features of each kind of clinical research trial. ItemA Comparative Study of Texas and Other States Regarding School Health Educator Qualifications(2009-05-01) Gonzalez, Rosa Emma; Dr. Kristine LykensQualified school health educators are critical in educating the youth about diseases and disease prevention. The School Health Profiles, School Health Policies and Programs Study 2006, Texas Education Agency, and Texas Legislature Online were used to compare Texas with other states in terms of school health educator qualifications, continuing education, and who teaches health education in schools. Texas should model policies that states, such as Alabama, Georgia, Hawaii, Minnesota, New Jersey, Rhode Island, Utah, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia, have implemented. These states have polices in place that require health education teachers to obtain the Certified Health Education Specialist credential (CHES). The National Commission for Health Education Credentialing requires CHES to obtain health specific continuing education training. ItemA Comparative Study of Three Methods to Enhance the Collection of DNA from Plant Material(2013-05-01) Ausmer, Alea D; Joseph WarrenThe Botanical Research Institute of Texas is using two methods of DNA extraction from plants, an automated method called Bullet Blender® and a manual method of grinding. A third method, using an instrument called the Fast Prep-24™, was evaluated and the DNA yield obtained was compared to the other methods. Eight plant species were chosen and two sample preparation methods, wet and dry, were evaluated. DNA yield gels were run in order to compare DNA quality and UV spectroscopy was used to evaluate quantity. Independent Student t-tests were performed to compare means variation between the DNA yield on the wet and dry samples and one-way ANOVA was used to compare variation between the three extraction methods. No significant difference was found between the wet and dry samples for DNA concentrations, but a significant difference was observed between the Fast Prep-24™ instrument and the other two methods. ItemA Comparative Study on the Differences in Policies Contributing to Childhood Obesity in the United States and Child Malnutrition in Sub-Saharan Africa(2010-05-01) Akuoko, Mathias K.; Dr. Kristine LykensChildhood obesity in the United States has reached an epidemic state. Child malnutrition in Africa has reached an epidemic state. The objective is: To analyze the policies that have contributed to childhood obesity in the United States and malnutrition in Sub-Saharan Africa. Data: Trust for America’s Health; for childhood obesity. Database by Dr. Lykens and colleagues for child malnutrition. Analysis performed on childhood obesity and malnutrition. Findings: Public policies have contributed to this wide nutritional disparity in these two areas. Recommendations: The policies that have contributed to these can also serve as an avenue to reverse them; Africa should learn from the West to improve food security. ItemA Comparison of Medicare Prospective Payment Systems on P.T.C.A. and Stent Outcomes in an Urban Hospital(2001-05-01) Compton, Ben H.; Doug A. Mains; P. E. HilsenrathCompton, Ben H., A Comparison of Medicare Prospective Systems on P.T.C.A. and STENT Outcomes in an Urban Hospital. Master of Public Health (Health Services Administration), May 2001, 57 pp., 10 tables, 1 graph, bibliography, 51 titles. To determine if differences in outcomes exist between Medicare prospective payment systems when doing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) or STENT surgeries. From January 1999 and December 2000, 146 Medicare patients were identified with 35 being outpatient and 111 inpatient. A separate group of 1-day inpatients was used as a comparison for the outpatient group. Results from the comparison reveal that in the three groups, the majority of patients were white, non-Hispanic males who were about 70 years of age. The 1-day inpatient group had the highest profit of all three with about $3,000 while the inpatient group broke even. The outpatient group had no in-hospital deaths or complications while all three had equal amounts of comorbidities. The conclusion is that losses will probably occur if PTCA and STENTs are done outpatient. Possible solutions are moving to an inpatient setting or determining which costs can be reduced in the outpatient setting. ItemA Cost Analysis of Tuberculosis and its Prevention in Tarrant County, Texas(2007-05-01) Miller, Thaddeus L.; Scott McNabb; Peter Hilsenrath; Jotam PasipanodyaMiller, Thaddeus L. A Cost Analysis of Tuberculosis and its Prevention in Tarrant County, Texas. Doctor of Public Health (Health Management and Policy), May 2007, 232 pp., 29 tables, 2 illustrations, bibliography, 274 titles. Tuberculosis cost has been incompletely described as the cost arising from acute illness and treatment. The societal cost of tuberculosis arises from infection, suspicion of infection, acute and preventive responses, the sequalae of illness (including acute morbidity, drug induced hepatitis, mortality, and disability), and the compounding effects of transmission. This societal cost in unknown however the variable portion of this cost is equivalent to the savings made possible by averting tuberculosis, This study measured the societal cost of tuberculosis in Tarrant County, Texas, for the year 2002. Societal costs were estimated as the sum of known or estimated expenditures and health losses related to tuberculosis and discounted at 3%. Current and future costs will accrue to an estimated net $33.9 2002 USD million for the year 2002 in Tarrant County, Texas. An average of 1.4 QALYs net of 3% social discount were lost per incident case. The greatest burdens of tuberculosis, when analyzed by either cost or health quality, can be averted only by case prevention. Forty-three and 44% of societal cost was generate by secondary transmission and chronic impairment associated with pulmonary tuberculosis. Neither factor is routinely considered in discussions of tuberculosis cost. Acute treatment, hospitalization and direct medical care account for only 2.4% of societal cost. Any intervention that prevents one tuberculosis case will prevent at least a net $295,182 (2002 USD) and individual health quality losses averaging 1.4 net QALYs. ItemA Critical Review of the One Hour and the Eight Hour Standards for Ozone with an Overview of the Proceedings that Led to the Implementation of The New Standard for Ozone(2004-05-01) Palla, Amruth A.Palla, Amruth R., A Critical Review of the One Hour and the Eight Hour Standards for Ozone with an Overview of the Proceedings that Led to the Implementation of The New Standard for Ozone; Master of Public Health (Environmental and Occupational Health), May 2004, 58 pp, 3 tables, 2 illustrations, 35 titles. With the increasing concern for human health and the recognition of the major role played by environment in the multi-factorial disease etiology, the various parameters established for maintaining the environmental constituents in the proportions desired for achieving a normal health status are taking an important position in the present day world. In 1997, during its review process the EPA found the exiting one-hour standards, for ozone to be insufficient to achieve the health friendly concentrations, and therefore proposed a new eight hour standard for this pollutant. The new standards proposed by the EPA were challenged by various other organizations and several proceedings have happened since then. The purpose of my thesis is to do a critical analysis of the advantages and the drawbacks of the two standards and to do an overview of the proceedings that have led to the implementation of the new standards. ItemA Cross-Sectional Study on Factors Affecting Maternal Trust in Texas Government to Make Good Decisions About Newborn Screening and Dried Bloodspot Storage(2015-12-01) Nguyen, Huy David Dang; Robert T. Mallet; Peter B. RavenNewborn screening (NBS) results in a surplus of blood samples in the form of dried bloodspots (DBS). Texas’s “opt-in” policy requires mothers’ permission for the state to store DBS samples for research. A cross-sectional study was performed on post-partum mothers in North Texas to determine the effect of the mothers’ demographics, knowledge, attitudes, and decisions about NBS and DBS storage on trust in Texas’ ability to make good decisions regarding bloodspot research. The aforementioned trust in the Texas government was strongly associated with trust in Texas to keep the babies’ information private, belief that using DBS for public health was beneficial, and trust in Texas to de-identify their babies’ DBS. Medicaid coverage also showed a slight association with this trust. Overall, mothers who are supportive of public health research using de-identified specimens such as DBS are more confident in the Texas’s ability to make the right choices regarding DBS storage. ItemA Descriptive Analysis of Adolescent Pregnancy and Birth Outcomes in Tarrant County, Texas(1999-08-01) Omoloh, Wilfred J.; Gilbert Ramirez; Antonio ReneOmoloh, Wilfred, J., A Descriptive Analysis of Adolescent Pregnancy and Birth Outcomes in Tarrant County, Texas. Master of Public Health, August 14, 1999, 110 pp, 19 tables, reference list, 68 titles. A descriptive study of adolescent pregnancy and birth outcomes in Tarrant county, Texas between 1991 and 1995 was conducted to evaluate the effect of maternal age on infant birthweight and mortality among White, African American, and Hispanic adolescent mothers nineteen years and older. The age of the mother was not a significant predictor of infant birthweight and mortality, but mother’s ethnicity, weight gain, and gestational age were found to be strong predictors of infant birthweight and mortality. The Hispanic ethnic group came out much better than White and Black mothers but no difference between White and Black mothers regarding birthweight was found. The results from the data analysis demonstrated that teenage pregnancy may not be a serious problem in Tarrant County, Texas as was previously though. ItemA DNA-Based Multiplex Screening Tool for Separation of Fragmented and Commingled Skeletal Remains(2007-12-01) Ambers, Angie; Joseph Warren; John Planz; Arthur EisenbergAmbers, Angie, A DNA-based Multiplex Screening Tool for Separation of Fragmented and Commingled Skeletal Remains. Master of Science (Forensic Genetics), December, 2007, 63 pages, 13 tables, 19 figures, references, 38 titles. In mass death scenarios, human remains are often fragmented, scattered, and commingled. Ascertaining the number of victims and determining the victims’ identities in such scenarios is a challenging task. A DNA-based screening tool used early in the investigation of mass disasters or mass graves would provide a relatively quick way to initially assess casualty numbers and separate remains for further analysis. Such a tool would promote the most efficient allocation of resources and speed the identification process. The multiplex designed here incorporates a few genetic loci that show high variability in the human population, giving it sufficient discriminatory power for separation of commingled remains. Specifically, the multiplex includes the amelogenin sex-determining locus, D3S1358, and a 3’ (CA)n dinucleotide repeat in the mitochondrial D-loop. Further optimization/validation studies need to be conducted, and a fourth locus (D5S818) may need to be considered to increase the tool’s power of discrimination.